Academic Article on Orla by Wojciech Konończuk

Author: Wojciech Konończuk — political scientist and historian, deputy director of the Centre for Eastern Studies in Warsaw; specializes in problems of contemporary Eastern European countries, the history of Jews in the Russian Empire and the Second Polish Republic, and deportations of Polish citizens to Siberia during the Second World War. Contact: wojtekk7@wp.pl

Heinrich, Marek, Ray, Eli, Jill & Wojciech at the Orla Synagogue in 2012
Wykazuja_najwyzsza_sklonnosc_do_emigrac (1)

English Translation (Google)

Wojciech Article Adademia Eng Trans
Extract from the above article

Page 7

605

“They show the highest tendency to emigrate” thousands of other migrants from Lithuania. According to the census of 1911, 47 thousand Jews lived in South Africa, many of whom were Lithuanians, although there were also Jews from Podlasie.

Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski (Rabinowitz) & his brother,  Moshe Zalman Rabinowitz from Orla

An example is Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski from Orla, who first emigrated to Palestine, from where in 1911  he moved to South Africa. After a few years, he was joined by his brother, sister and several other residents of his native shtetl (20) .

Migration level of Jews was so significant that already in 1895,  there were voices calling until the border is closed to them, and South Africa playfully was called the “colony of Lithuania” 21 .

Relatively little popularity before the outbreak of World War I, Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire, enjoyed this manski, where in the first (1882-1903) and second (1904-1914) aliji came over 40 thousand. Russian Jews, including 23,000 in years 1905–1914 22 . They came mainly from the Ukrainian lands, in the most more affected by pogroms at the beginning of the 20th century. Funds from numerous Zionist organizations were gathered to buy land in Palestine, and one of the largest was founded in 1912. Białystok Society Land purchase, supporting the departures of Białystok Jews 23 . As it follows, according to the findings of Gur Alroey, emigration to Palestine was caused by not only the idea of ​​Zionism, but this area was also seen as a potential attractive place to live, and thus the reasons for emigration did not differ from those related to going to the USA 24 . Interesting there is also the level of returns from Palestine, possibly emigration from there to the US or another country was very high and in the period before at the outbreak of World War I, it ranged from 50 to 75 percent. 25  It was from a difficult climate, poverty, limited possibilities of finding work, relative proximity to the migrants’ place of origin, but also disenchantment with Zionism 26 .

20  E. Rabinowitz, Personal Journeys. From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Discovery , Avotayline Online, August 31, 2016, http://avotaynuonline.com/2016/08/from-one-photograph-to-journeys-of-research-and-discovery (access: February 17, 2020).

21  A. Żukowski, Konsekwencje , p. 128; HR Diner, Roads Taken , p. 36.

22  G. Alroey, An Unpromising Land , p. 110.

23  R. Kobrin, Żydowski Białystok and its diaspora , Sejny – Białystok 2014, pp. 67–68.

24  G. Alroey, An Unpromising Land , pp. 61, 233.

25  Ibid, pp. 211-217, 236.

Also further down in the article

610

Wojciech Konończuk

Table 2. Emigration of inhabitants of Bielsko and Orla to the USA in the years 1885–1914

It should be emphasized that the above calculations do not give the full picture Jewish emigration from both localities, and only provide information about confirmed newcomers to the United States. Uses- the scanned numbers are certainly far from complete for several reasons.

Firstly, as already mentioned, in relation to some of the migration documents, However, the record of a person’s place of origin is unclear or it was written distorted. Thus, it made it impossible the identification of all emigrants from both places.

Secondly, the data included in the table do not include migration from Bielsko and Orla to other countries, which – if data for departures of Jews from the Empire are accepted Russian – was 22 percent. -all migrants.

We have source confirmation of emigration in both surveyed towns Jews living there to Argentina, South Africa and Palestine 43 .

Third, many Jews from smaller towns were leaving, the most first to larger cities, then emigrate from there abroad nothing. As a result, American migration statistics often show their whereabouts, not of origin, appeared. In case of Bielsko and Orla, such a natural center was Białystok 44, 50 km away .

43  For example: in 1905, Aryeh Levin from Orla (1885-1969) emigrated to Palestine, in later years a famous rabbi and teacher; in 1907, Bielski left for Argentina Jew Dawid Abraham Gail (R. Gail, The Gail Family. From Bielsko to Argentina and the USA , “Bielski Hostineć “2019, 2, pp. 63–64); 

in 1911 the above-mentioned Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski, and shortly after him, several other Orla residents emigrated to South Africa                    (E. Rabinowitz, op. Cit.).

Rabinowitz Eli, Personal Journeys. From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Disco- very, Avotayline Online, 31 VIII 2016, http://avotaynuonline.com/2016/08/ from-one-photograph-to-journeys-of-research-and-discovery (dostęp: 17 II 2020).

A Tragic Romance & Finding Mr Katz
by Eli rabinowitz

A Tragic Romance & Finding Mr Katz

This story is divided into: A Tragic Romance (From One Photograph to Journeys of Research & Discovery) and Finding Mr Katz   Finding Mr Katz by Eli Rabinowitz Finding Mr Katz is an importa…

Source: elirab.me/litvak-portal/a-tragic-romance/

Heinrich, Marek, Ray, Eli, Jill & Wojciech at the Orla Synagogue 2012

Contact: eli@elirab.com

Academic Article on Orla by Wojciech Konończuk

Author: Wojciech Konończuk — political scientist and historian, deputy director of the Centre for Eastern Studies in Warsaw; specializes in problems of contemporary Eastern European countries, the history of Jews in the Russian Empire and the Second Polish Republic, and deportations of Polish citizens to Siberia during the Second World War. Contact: wojtekk7@wp.pl

Heinrich, Marek, Ray, Eli, Jill & Wojciech at the Orla Synagogue in 2012
Wykazuja_najwyzsza_sklonnosc_do_emigrac (1)

English Translation (Google)

Wojciech Article Adademia Eng Trans
Extract from the above article

Page 7

605

“They show the highest tendency to emigrate” thousands of other migrants from Lithuania. According to the census of 1911, 47 thousand Jews lived in South Africa, many of whom were Lithuanians, although there were also Jews from Podlasie.

Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski (Rabinowitz) & his brother,  Moshe Zalman Rabinowitz from Orla

An example is Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski from Orla, who first emigrated to Palestine, from where in 1911  he moved to South Africa. After a few years, he was joined by his brother, sister and several other residents of his native shtetl (20) .

Migration level of Jews was so significant that already in 1895,  there were voices calling until the border is closed to them, and South Africa playfully was called the “colony of Lithuania” 21 .

Relatively little popularity before the outbreak of World War I, Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire, enjoyed this manski, where in the first (1882-1903) and second (1904-1914) aliji came over 40 thousand. Russian Jews, including 23,000 in years 1905–1914 22 . They came mainly from the Ukrainian lands, in the most more affected by pogroms at the beginning of the 20th century. Funds from numerous Zionist organizations were gathered to buy land in Palestine, and one of the largest was founded in 1912. Białystok Society Land purchase, supporting the departures of Białystok Jews 23 . As it follows, according to the findings of Gur Alroey, emigration to Palestine was caused by not only the idea of ​​Zionism, but this area was also seen as a potential attractive place to live, and thus the reasons for emigration did not differ from those related to going to the USA 24 . Interesting there is also the level of returns from Palestine, possibly emigration from there to the US or another country was very high and in the period before at the outbreak of World War I, it ranged from 50 to 75 percent. 25  It was from a difficult climate, poverty, limited possibilities of finding work, relative proximity to the migrants’ place of origin, but also disenchantment with Zionism 26 .

20  E. Rabinowitz, Personal Journeys. From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Discovery , Avotayline Online, August 31, 2016, http://avotaynuonline.com/2016/08/from-one-photograph-to-journeys-of-research-and-discovery (access: February 17, 2020).

21  A. Żukowski, Konsekwencje , p. 128; HR Diner, Roads Taken , p. 36.

22  G. Alroey, An Unpromising Land , p. 110.

23  R. Kobrin, Żydowski Białystok and its diaspora , Sejny – Białystok 2014, pp. 67–68.

24  G. Alroey, An Unpromising Land , pp. 61, 233.

25  Ibid, pp. 211-217, 236.

Also further down in the article

610

Wojciech Konończuk

Table 2. Emigration of inhabitants of Bielsko and Orla to the USA in the years 1885–1914

It should be emphasized that the above calculations do not give the full picture Jewish emigration from both localities, and only provide information about confirmed newcomers to the United States. Uses- the scanned numbers are certainly far from complete for several reasons.

Firstly, as already mentioned, in relation to some of the migration documents, However, the record of a person’s place of origin is unclear or it was written distorted. Thus, it made it impossible the identification of all emigrants from both places.

Secondly, the data included in the table do not include migration from Bielsko and Orla to other countries, which – if data for departures of Jews from the Empire are accepted Russian – was 22 percent. -all migrants.

We have source confirmation of emigration in both surveyed towns Jews living there to Argentina, South Africa and Palestine 43 .

Third, many Jews from smaller towns were leaving, the most first to larger cities, then emigrate from there abroad nothing. As a result, American migration statistics often show their whereabouts, not of origin, appeared. In case of Bielsko and Orla, such a natural center was Białystok 44, 50 km away .

43  For example: in 1905, Aryeh Levin from Orla (1885-1969) emigrated to Palestine, in later years a famous rabbi and teacher; in 1907, Bielski left for Argentina Jew Dawid Abraham Gail (R. Gail, The Gail Family. From Bielsko to Argentina and the USA , “Bielski Hostineć “2019, 2, pp. 63–64); 

in 1911 the above-mentioned Nachum Mendel Skaryszewski, and shortly after him, several other Orla residents emigrated to South Africa                    (E. Rabinowitz, op. Cit.).

Rabinowitz Eli, Personal Journeys. From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Disco- very, Avotayline Online, 31 VIII 2016, http://avotaynuonline.com/2016/08/ from-one-photograph-to-journeys-of-research-and-discovery (dostęp: 17 II 2020).

A Tragic Romance & Finding Mr Katz
by Eli rabinowitz

A Tragic Romance & Finding Mr Katz

This story is divided into: A Tragic Romance (From One Photograph to Journeys of Research & Discovery) and Finding Mr Katz   Finding Mr Katz by Eli Rabinowitz Finding Mr Katz is an importa…

Source: elirab.me/litvak-portal/a-tragic-romance/

Heinrich, Marek, Ray, Eli, Jill & Wojciech at the Orla Synagogue 2012

Contact: eli@elirab.com

Orla Poland: Ten Years ago today, an email changed everything!

On 7 November 2010, I received an email from Wojciech Konończuk in Warsaw, who wrote the following:

Dear Eli Rabinowitz,

I found a short piece of information about „Rabinowitz family originally Skarasjewski from Orla near Bialystok” on this website

I research the history of Jews in Orla, preparing a book on this subject, and I’m very interested in any testimonies, photos or other materials concerning this issue. Maybe you will be able to provide me some new information about Jewish people from Orla?

Sincerely

Wojciech Kononczuk (Warsaw)

Research over the next six months was based on our existing family records and not much in terms of new genealogical ones was found. The records for Orla for the period around the turn of the 20thCentury are housed in the Grodno State Archives in Belarus. We eventually found out that the 1906 Bielsk County Voters List including “Skorishevski Abram-Yankel son of Leib”, who is also listed in the 1912 Grodno Gubernia Voters List.  I also found family records and memoirs of my surviving aunt, Sarah Stepansky.

As a result, I have reconstructed all descendants of Chart of Moshko Skareshevsky of Orla.

After six months of correspondence and research, I met Wojciech on 12 May 2011 in Bialystok. He drove me to the Orla Synagogue, where I met the other members of his team:

Source: sztetl.org.pl/en/towns/o/682-orla/104-cultural-texts/139505-eli-rabinowitz-talks-about-his-family-orla

Orla

Orla

 

Wojciech Konończuk met me at the Branicki Hotel in Bialystok at 8.45am and drove me to Orla, about 45km from Bialystok. Wojciech is a researcher in Warsaw and has an Orla project involving me. H…

Source: elirab.me/orla/

The next year Jill, Ray and Heinrich joined us:

Orla – 11 May 2012

Orla – 11 May 2012

My second visit

We met Ray and Heinrich Hengy from Freiberg, Germany at our hotel in Warsaw at 7:45am. This was the first time we have met. Ray’s mother Paula was engaged to my Great Uncle Moshe, when he was…

Source: elirab.me/orla-11-may-2012/

At Treblinka

Sadly, both Ray and Heinrich passed away around July 2020

#MeetALeader: Marek Chmielewski from Orla, where he heads the village’s self-government, is a real master of networking, building wide coalitions of like-minded people, and sparking ideas that engage local community. Under his guidance and with his vocal support local initiatives thrive!

Marek’s “With the Synagogue in the Backgound. We Remember” project engaged local residents young and old. Young children and teenagers recreated pre-war Yiddish business signboards and used QR codes to link actual places to articles about Orla’s Jewish history. Adults participated in photography and film workshops led by Orla-born photographer and journalist, Piotr Nesterowicz. The finale of this 8-week project coincided with the 77th anniversary of the liquidation of the local ghetto, which was commemorated with a walk of memory and film screenings. What is more, Marek invited experts, who he had met at Forum’s National Leaders of Dialogue Conference, to share their knowledge with the local audience. He also invited another Leader, Robert Urbanowski, active in Racibórz, to perform with his Midrash Jewish Theater.

 

Personal Journeys: From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Discovery

Personal Journeys: From One Photograph to Journeys of Research and Discovery

Avotaynu Online

Source: avotaynuonline.com/2016/08/from-one-photograph-to-journeys-of-research-and-discovery/

Personal Journeys: Finding Mr. Katz

Personal Journeys: Finding Mr. Katz

Avotaynu Online

Source: avotaynuonline.com/2016/12/personal-journeys-finding-mr-katz/

Warsaw, Poland

With Helise Lieberman
With Helise Lieberman

The Polin Museum

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Magdalena Mizgalska

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich
Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw 011.JPG

The museum building
Established 2005 (opened April 2013)
Location Warsaw, Poland
Coordinates 52°14′58″N 20°59′34″E
Type Historical, cultural
Collection size History and culture of Polish Jews
Visitors expected 450,000
Director Dariusz Stola
Curator Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett
Website Museum official website

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (PolishMuzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto. The Hebrew word Polin in the museum’s name means, in English, either “Poland” or “rest here” and is related to a legend on the arrival of the first Jews in Poland.[1] The cornerstone was laid in 2007, and the museum was first opened on April 19, 2013.[2][3] The museum’s Core Exhibition opened in October 2014.[4] The museum features a multimedia narrative exhibition about the vibrant Jewish community that flourished in Poland for a thousand years up to the Holocaust.[5] The building, a postmodern structure in glass, copper, and concrete, was designed by Finnish architects Rainer Mahlamäki and Ilmari Lahdelma.[6

History

 

President of the Republic of PolandLech Kaczynski, at the groundbreaking ceremony for the POLIN Museum, 26 June 2007

The idea for creating a major new museum in Warsaw dedicated to the history of Polish Jews was initiated in 1995 by the Association of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland.[7] In the same year, the Warsaw City Council allocated the land for this purpose in Muranów, Warsaw’s prewar Jewish neighborhood and site of the former Warsaw Ghetto, facing the Monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Heroes. In 2005, the Association of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland established a unique private-public partnership with the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and the City of Warsaw. The Museum’s first director was Jerzy Halbersztadt. In September 2006, a specially designed tent called Ohel (the Hebrew word for tent in English) was erected for exhibitions and events on the museum’s future location.[7]

An international architectural competition for designs for the building was launched in 2005, supported by a grant from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. On June 30, 2005 the jury announced the winner; a team of two Finnish architects, Rainer Mahlamäki and Ilmari Lahdelma.[8] On June 30, 2009 construction of the building was officially inaugurated. The project was to be finished in 33 months at a cost of PLN 150 million zlotyallocated by the Ministry and the City.[9] and a total cost of PLN 320 million zloty.[10][11]

The museum opened the building and began its educational and cultural programs on April 19, 2013 on the 70th Anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. During the 18 months that followed, more than 180,000 visitors toured the building, visited the first temporary exhibitions, and took part in cultural and educational programs and events, including films, debates, workshops, performances, concerts and lectures. The Grand Opening, with the completed Core Exhibition, was on October 28, 2014.[12] The Core Exhibition documents and celebrates the thousand-year history of the Jewish community in Poland that was decimated by the Holocaust.[4][5]

In 2016 the museum won the European Museum of the Year Award from the European Museum Forum.[13]

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The Jewish Historical Institute

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Three videos from Matan Shefi, whom I bumped in the street, not far from Polin

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Jewish Historical Institute

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

The Jewish Historical Institute (PolishŻydowski Instytut Historyczny or ŻIH) is a research institute in WarsawPoland, primarily dealing with the history of Jews in Poland.

History

The Jewish Historical Institute was created in 1947 as a continuation of the Central Jewish Historical Commission, founded in 1944. The Jewish Historical Institute Association is the corporate body responsible for the building and the Institute’s holdings. The Institute falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. In 2009 it was named after Emanuel Ringelblum. The institute is a repository of documentary materials relating to the Jewish historical presence in Poland. It is also a centre for academic research, study and the dissemination of knowledge about the history and culture of Polish Jewry.

The most valuable part of the collection is the Warsaw Ghetto Archive, known as the Ringelblum Archive (collected by the Oyneg Shabbos). It contains about 6000 documents (about 30 000 individual pieces of paper).

Other important collections concerning World War II include testimonies (mainly of Jewish survivors of the Holocaust), memoirs and diaries, documentation of the Joint and Jewish Self-Help (welfare organizations active in Poland under the occupation), and documents from the Jewish Councils (Judenräte)

The section on the documentation of Jewish historical sites holds about 40 thousand photographs concerning Jewish life and culture in Poland.

The Institute has published a series of documents from the Ringelblum Archive, as well as numerous wartime memoirs and diaries.[1]

In 2011, Paweł Śpiewak, a Professor of Sociology at Warsaw University and former politician, was nominated as the Director of the Jewish Historical Institute by Bogdan Zdrojewski, Minister of Culture and National Heritage.[2]

The Nosyk Synagogue

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Nożyk Synagogue

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Nożyk Synagogue
Synagoga Nożyków
 
Basic information
Location WarsawPoland
Geographic coordinates 52°14′10″N 21°00′04″ECoordinates52°14′10″N 21°00′04″E
Affiliation Orthodox Judaism
District Śródmieście
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Active Synagogue
Leadership Rabbi Michael Schudrich
Website http://www.warszawa.jewish.org.pl
Architectural description
Architect(s) Karol Kozłowski
Architectural style neoromanesque
Completed 1902
Construction cost 250.000 rubles
Specifications
Capacity 600
 

Interior of the synagogue

The Nożyk Synagogue (PolishSynagoga Nożyków) is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland. It was built in 1898-1902 and was restored after World War II. It is still operational and currently houses the Warsaw Jewish Commune, as well as other Jewish organizations.

History

Before World War II the Jewish community of Warsaw, one of the largest Jewish communities in the world at that time, had over 400 houses of prayer at its disposal. However, at the end of 19th century only two of them were separate structures, while the rest were smaller chapels attached to schools, hospitals or private homes. The earliest Round Synagogue in the borough of Praga served the local community since 1839, while the Great Synagogue (erected in 1878) was built for the reformed community. Soon afterwards a need arose to build a temple also for the orthodox Jewry. Between 1898 and 1902 Zalman Nożyk, a renowned Warsaw merchant, and his wife Ryfka financed such temple at Twarda street, next to the neighbourhood of Grzybów and Plac Grzybowski. The building was designed by a famous Warsaw architect, Karol Kozłowski, author of the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra Hall.[1] The façade is neo-romanticist, with notable neo-Byzantine elements. The building itself is rectangular, with the internal chamber divided into three aisles.

The synagogue was officially opened to the public on May 26, 1902. In 1914 the founders donated it to the Warsaw Jewish Commune, in exchange for yearly prayers in their intention. In 1923 the building was refurbished by Maurycy Grodzieński, who also designed a semi-circular choir that was attached to the eastern wall of the temple. In September 1939 the synagogue was damaged during an air raid. During World War II the area was part of the Small Ghetto and shared its fate during the Ghetto Uprising and then the liquidation of the Jewish community of Warsaw by the Nazis. After 1941 the Germans used the building as stables and a depot. After the war the demolished building was partially restored and returned to the Warsaw Jewish Commune, but the reconstruction did not start. It was completely rebuilt between 1977 and 1983 (officially opened April 18, 1983). It was also then that a new wing was added to the eastern wall, currently housing the seat of the commune, as well as several other Jewish organizations.

Ghetto Wall Marking

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Meetings

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FODZ
FODZ

Forum-dialog

Chopin and Kopernicus

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The Storm

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The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

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Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (PolishGrób Nieznanego Żołnierza) is a monument in WarsawPoland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland. It is one of many such national tombs of unknowns that were erected after World War I, and the most important such monument in Poland.[1]

The monument, located at Piłsudski Square, is the only surviving part of the Saxon Palace that occupied the spot until World War II. Since 2 November 1925 the tomb houses an unidentified body of a young soldier who fell during the Defence of Lwów. At a later date earth from numerous battlefields where Polish soldiers have fought was added to the urns housed in the surviving pillars of the Saxon Palace.

The Tomb is constantly lit by an eternal flame and assisted by a guard post by the Representative Battalion of the Polish Army. It is there that most official military commemorations take place in Poland and where foreign representatives lay wreaths when visiting Poland.

The changing of the guard takes place on the hour of every hour daily and this happens 365 days a year.

History

In 1923, a group of unknown Varsovians placed, before Warsaw’s Saxon Palace and the adjacent Saxon Garden, a stone tablet commemorating all the unknown Polish soldiers who had fallen in World War I and the subsequent Polish-Soviet War. This initiative was taken up by several Warsaw newspapers and by General Władysław Sikorski. On April 4, 1925, the Polish Ministry of War selected a battlefield from which the ashes of an unknown soldier would be brought to Warsaw. Of some 40 battles, that for Lwów was chosen. In October 1925, at Lwów’s Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, three coffins were exhumed: those of an unknown sergeant, corporal and private. The coffin that was to be transported to Warsaw was chosen by Jadwiga Zarugiewiczowa, mother of a soldier who had fallen at Zadwórze and whose body had never been found.

On November 2, 1925, the coffin was brought to Warsaw’s St. John’s Cathedral, where a Mass was held. Afterward eight recipients of the order of Virtuti Militari bore the coffin to its final resting place beneath the colonnade joining the two wings of the Saxon Palace. The coffin was buried along with 14 urns containing soil from as many battlegrounds, a Virtuti Militari medal, and a memorial tablet. Since then, except under German occupation during World War II, an honor guard has continuously been held before the Tomb.

Architecture

The Tomb was designed by the famous Polish sculptor, Stanisław Kazimierz Ostrowski. It was located within the arcade that linked the two symmetric wings of the Saxon Palace, then the seat of the Polish Ministry of War. The central tablet was ringed by 5 eternal flames and 4 stone tablets bearing the names and dates of battles in which Polish soldiers had fought during World War I and the Polish–Soviet War (1919–21). Behind the Tomb were two steel gratings bearing emblems of Poland’s two highest Polish military decorations — the Virtuti Militari and Cross of Valor.

During the 1939 invasion of Poland, the building was slightly damaged by German aerial bombing, but it was quickly rebuilt and seized by the German authorities. After the Warsaw Uprising, in December 1944, the palace was completely demolished by the Wehrmacht. Only part of the central colonnade, sheltering the Tomb, was preserved.

After the war, in late 1945, reconstruction began. Only a small part of the palace, containing the Tomb, was restored by Henryk Grunwald. On 8 May 1946 it was opened to the public. Soil from 24 additional battlegrounds was added to the urns, as well as more tablets with names of battles in which Poles had fought in World War II. However, the communist authorities erased all trace of the Polish–Soviet War of 1920, and only a few of the Polish Armed Forces’ battles in the West were included. This was corrected in 1990, after Poland had regained its political autonomy.

There are plans to rebuild the Saxon Palace, but as of May 2016, these plans have been indefinitely on hold due to a lack of budget.[citation needed]

The Hotel Bristol

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Hotel Bristol, Warsaw

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Hotel Bristol, Warsaw
Hotel Bristol 2011.JPG

Hotel Bristol, Warsaw (2011)
General information
Location WarsawPoland
Address Krakowskie Przedmiescie 42/44
Opening November 19, 1901
Owner Towarzystwo Akcyjne Budowy i Prowadzenia Hotelów, (1901-1928),
Bank Cukrownictwa (1928-1948),
City of Warsaw (1947-1952),
Orbis (1952-1977),
University of Warsaw (1977-1981),
Orbis (1981-2011),
Rosmarinum Investments (2011-)
Management Starwood Hotels
Design and construction
Architect Władysław Marconi
Other information
Number of rooms 168
Number of suites 38
Website
www.hotelbristolwarsaw.pl

Hotel Bristol, Warsaw is a historic luxury hotel opened in 1901 located on Krakowskie Przedmieście in Poland‘s capital, Warsaw

History

 

Hotel Bristol in 1901

The Hotel Bristol was constructed from 1899-1900 on the site of the Tarnowski Palace by a company whose partners included Polish pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski. A competition was held for the design of the building, and architects Thaddeus Stryjeriski and Franciszek Mączyński won with their Art Nouveau design. However the builders decided to change the style to a Neo-Renaissance design, and brought in architect Władysław Marconi to design the final hotel. Some of its interiors were designed by the noted Viennese architect Otto Wagner. The cornerstone was laid on April 22, 1899 and the hotel was dedicated on November 17, 1901 and opened on November 19, 1901.

 

Elegant cafe in the Bristol designed by Otto Wagner, 1901

After Poland gained its independence in 1919, Paderewski became the Prime Minister and held the first session of his government at his hotel. Paderewski and his partners sold their shares in the hotel in 1928 to a local bank, which renovated the hotel in 1934 with modern interiors by designer Antoni Jawornicki.

Upon the German invasion in 1939, the hotel was made into the headquarters of the Chief of the Warsaw District. It miraculously survived the war relatively unscathed, standing nearly alone among the rubble of its neighborhood. Following the war, the hotel was renovated and reopened in 1945.

 

Hotel lobby

The City of Warsaw took over operation of the hotel in 1947 and it was nationalized in 1948 and joined the state-run Orbis chain in 1952, exclusively serving visitors from abroad. By the 1970s its outdated facilities had seen it demoted to a second class ranking by the government and the hotel was donated by Prime Minister Peter Jaroszewicz to the University of Warsaw in 1977 to eventually serve as their library. It closed in 1981. However no work was done and the building languished through the waning days of the Communist government.

After the fall of Communism in 1989, the hotel was finally completely restored it to its former glory from 1991-1993, with the original interiors of the public rooms recreated to match the 1901 designs. The Bristol was reopened on April 17, 1993, with Margaret Thatcherin attendance, as part of the British Forte Hotels chain. From 1998 to 2013, the hotel was part of the Le Méridien hotel chain. The exterior was further restored in 2005, and the interior redecorated in 2013, after which the hotel joined The Luxury Collection division of Starwood Hotels.

Warsaw Uprising Youth Monument

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Mały Powstaniec

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
The Little Insurgent
Mały Powstaniec
Pomnik Malego Powstanca.JPG
Coordinates 52°14′59″N 21°0′34″ECoordinates52°14′59″N 21°0′34″E
Location Warsaw Old TownWarsawPoland
Designer Jerzy Jarnuszkiewicz
Material Bronze sculpture
Completion date 1 October 1983
Dedicated to The child soldiers of the Warsaw Uprising

Mały Powstaniec (the “Little Insurgent”) is a statue in commemoration of the child soldiers who fought and died during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. It is located on Podwale Street, next to the ramparts of Warsaw’s Old Town.

The statue is of a young boy wearing a helmet too large for his head and holding a submachine gun. It is reputed to be of a fighter who went by the pseudonym of “Antek”, and was killed on 8 August 1944 at the age of 13. The helmet and submachine gun are stylized after German equipment, which was captured during the uprising and used by the resistance fighters against the occupying forces.

Jerzy Jarnuszkiewicz[1] created the design for the monument in 1946, which was later used to make smaller copies of its present state. The statue was unveiled on October 1, 1983 by Professor Jerzy Świderski – a cardiologist who was a courier for the resistance during the uprising (pseudonym: “Lubicz”) serving in the Gustaw regiment of the Armia Krajowa. Behind the statue is a plaque with the engraved words of “Warszawskie Dzieci” (“Warsaw Children”), a popular song from the period: “Warszawskie dzieci, pójdziemy w bój – za każdy kamień twój, stolico damy krew” (“We’re the children of Warsaw, going into battle – for every stone of yours, we will give our blood”).

More Warsaw

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Warsaw at night

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