Seduva Jewish Ceremonies

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I was privileged to attend the Seduva Jewish Cemetery Restoration and the two Holocaust Memorial ceremonies.

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This is what Sergey Kanovich, who led the project, said at the first Holocaust Memorial ceremony:

Most probably it was a sunny and bright morning of August 25th 1941. That was the last morning that Seduva Jews gazed at the Lithuanian sky and seen the sun. Supervised by German nazi officers local neighbours of Seduva Jews became their executioners here and in other places.

Seventy years, even more needed in order to become a witness of little miracle of the victory of the humanity. We are here because we will never forget our sisters and brothers. We will never forget nor the way how they lived neither the way they were brutally murdered. It is the duty of all of us – of Jews and Lithuanians alike – to remember and respect the memory in order to avoid the catastrophe which Lithuanian Jews went through would never come back. To remember and respect – it is our common duty. No matter where litvaks would live – in Australia or South Africa, Israel or Switzerland, Belgium or Canada – we always remember where we came from, we remember our forefathers and we will never forget or allow to forget them. Murderers could not kill our memory. We are back, because our memory is stronger than their bullets. And memory will always prevail.

We wish to thank everyone who made this project a reality

We wish to extend our gratituted to every worker who makes these stones become a memory.

We are here in order to remember the life and death of those innocent who have been murdered. God bless their memory. Yhie zichram Baruch.Amen

Today is a second day of Jewish Holiday Shavuot. Since there are more than ten Jewish men we are obliged to say Kaddish for those who perished. I kindly ask Mr. Simas Levinas to start the prayer..

The photos before and at the cemetery:

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Video:

Rute Anu

The two Holocaust Memorials

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Video:

Part of Ed Glasenberg’s Address

Video:

Kaddish – Sung By Rafailas Karpis

Kaddish – Continued

Lost-Shtetl

Lost_Shtetl Brochure

 

Šeduva

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Šeduva
Coat of arms of Šeduva
Coat of arms

Location of Šeduva

Coordinates: 55°46′0″N 23°45′0″ECoordinates55°46′0″N 23°45′0″E
Country  Lithuania
Ethnographic region Aukštaitija
County Šiauliai County
Municipality Radviliškis district municipality
Eldership Šeduva eldership
Capital of Šeduva eldership
First mentioned 1539
Granted city rights 1654
Population (2005)
 • Total 3,270
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Šeduva (About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in the Radviliškis district municipalityLithuania. It is located 18 km (11 mi) east of Radviliškis.

Shadova-Šeduva was an agricultural town dealing in cereals, flax and linseed, pigs and geese and horses, at the site of a royal estate and beside a road from Kaunas to Riga. The population from the fifteenth century was Catholic and Jewish. Until then, Lithuania had been the last pagan kingdom in Europe and allowed freedom of worship and toleration of Jews and other religions.[1] The first Catholic shrine of Šeduva, the Church of the Invention of the Holy Cross, was built and the parish founded between 1512 and 1529. The present brick church Cross was built in Šeduva in 1643 with a donation from Bishop Jerzy Tyszkiewicz of Vilnius. During the 18th century the bell tower was added to the structure, with further renovations and extensions in 1905. Baroque and renaissance architectural styles characterise both the exterior and interior of the church. It has a cruciform plan with an apse, low sacristy and five altars.

During the 15th century the region was redefined as the Voivodeship of Trakai and Vilnius. Later it became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until the Union of Lublin in 1569 created the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The Seduva coat of arms were granted on June 25, 1654 by John II Casimir Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania and at the same time the city was granted burger rights at the request of Maria Ludvika, Queen of Poland. She descended from the Princes of Gonzaga, from Mantua in Italy. The arms of the family showed a black eagle. The small breastshield shows the French fleur-de-lis, because the Gonzaga family was related to the French Royal family. The eagle was made white in reference to the white eagle of Poland.

Evil mill

1792 Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, the last royal proprietor of Šeduva, concluded an agreement with the town’s citizens, giving them rights to be excused from labour on the estate for a fee. In 1795, the year of a terrible fire in Seduva, Lithuania became part of Russia when Poland was partitioned. From 1798, Baron Theodore von Ropp did not acknowledge the rights of Seduva citizens and required of the citizens to perform labour in the town’s manor. The citizens petitioned for their rights to the Russian Senate. In 1812, the Senate passed the decision to recognise the former charters of Šeduva.

Between 1696 to1762, a Jesuit mission, connected with their college at Pasiause, was active in the town, operating a lower school with 96 pupils up until 1828. After an insurrection in 1863 (the January Uprising), all parish schools in Seduva were closed and replaced by public Russian language schools. In the same year a Russian Orthodox Church, designed by the architect Ustinas Golinevicius, was built and in 1866 a wooden Synagogue was added near the central market square.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and Communist Russia in August 1939 and the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty a month later placed Lithuania under Soviet control. By June 1940 the Soviets had set up a pro-Soviet government and stationed many Red Army troops in Lithuania as part of the Mutual Assistance Pact between the countries. President Antanas Smetona was forced to leave as 15 Red Army divisions came in.

The pro-Soviet puppet government was controlled by Vladimir Dekanozov and Justas Paleckis, and Lithuania was made part of the Soviet Union. A Sovietisation programme began immediately. Land, banks and large businesses were nationalised. All religious, cultural, and political organizations were abolished except the Communist party. 17000 people were deported to Siberia, where many would perish.

The German army invaded Lithuania on 22 June 1941, taking Shadova – Šeduva a few days later as part of Operation Barbarossa. At first the Lithuanian population considered the Nazis to be liberators saving them from the Red Army. The new pro-German Government organized a Lithuanian militia which then became the Nazi’s manpower for genocide. Five hundred years of Jewish life in Shadova – Šeduva ended in just two days of slaughter. Shadova’s Jews attempted to flee east to Russia but were badly treated by Lithuanian nationalists and most returned to their homes. The German forces entered Shadova – Šeduva on 25 June 1941 and were received with flowers by many locals. By the beginning of July, Jews had to wear the yellow Star of David. Jews who had participated in the Soviet rule were immediately arrested and executed. Jews were taken to dismantle the remnants of the munitions factory in Linkaičiai, and were then accused of stealing and executed. Others were forced into labour gangs. They were set to work cleaning the streets and at the warehouses of the rail station. All the work was guarded by armed Lithuanian militi . Next all the Jews of Shadova – Šeduva had to gather in the market place with no more than a small package each, and to hand over the keys to their houses to the police. Under guard. they were escorted at night to the village of Pavartyčiai, five kilometres north-west of Shadova – Šeduva, where they were crowded into two unfinished Soviet barracks surrounded with barbed wire. The Jews were ordered to hand over all their valuables and cash. Some were shot in the next few days.

On 25 August 1941 the remaining Jews of Shadova – Šeduva were loaded on trucks and taken to Liaudiškiai, ten kilometres south-west of the town where the Rollcommando Hamann of Einsatzcommando 3 and Lithuanian collaborators of the 3rd company of the Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas were waiting for them. Over the coming two days the entire Jewish community of Shadova was shot and buried in two pre-prepared mass graves. One site was located 400 meters north of the Shadova – Šeduva road and a second 900 meters north west of the same road, close to a path in the forest. The local killers of their Jewish neighbours from Shadova – Šeduva were Ramnauskes, Valavičius, Jonas Tomkus and Klemensas Rožėnas. The lists of mass graves in the book The Popular Massacres of Lithuania, Part II, include the following: Liaudiskiai forest about 10 km southwest of Seduva, one site 400 meters north of the Seduva road and a second site 900 meters northwest of the same road, close to a path in the forest.[2] The Jäger report concludes that Einsatzcommando 3 registered the murder in Šeduva on the 25 and 26 August 1941 of 230 Jews, 275 Jewesses and 159 Jewish children, a total of 664 people.

 

 

Vilnius 5

My fifth visit to Vilnius in as many years. The Jerusalem of Lithuania!

Some images of the Choral Synagogue which around the corner from my hotel, The Conti.

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Choral Synagogue, Vilnius

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Choral Synagogue of Vilnius
Vilniaus sinagoga.jpg
Basic information
Location LithuaniaVilnius’ Old TownLithuania
Affiliation Judaism
Status In use
Architectural description
Architect(s) Dovydas Rosenhauzas
Completed 1903
Specifications
The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius (LithuanianVilniaus choralinė sinagoga) is the only synagogue in Vilnius that is still in use. The other synagogues were destroyed during World War II, when Lithuania was occupied by Nazi Germany.

The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius was built in 1903.[1]

The synagogue is built in a RomanesqueMoorish style.[2]

It is the only active synagogue that survived both the Holocaust and Soviet rule in this city that once had over 100 synagogues.[1]International donations and a small community of Jews in Vilnius support the synagogue. The synagogue holds services and is open to visitors.[2]

My first visit to the Vilnius Jewish Public Library which was most interesting. I met its director:

Žilvinas Beliauskas <zilvinas.beliauskas@vilnius-jewish-public-library.com>

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Video of Arcadius & Batya

Web:

Vilnius Jewish Public Library

On Facebook

The Green House and Sugihara

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Trip Advisor – Green House

Professor Dovid Katz at his home. A most delightful evening with an unforgettable icon!

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Video of Dov Katz

I met with renowned historian and guide: Ilya Lempertas

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Facebook: Ilya Lempertas

JHI Warsaw – The Jewish Historical Institute

Day Two in Warsaw was highlighted by a visit to JHI Warsaw

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I watched a 45 minute movie on Jewish life in Warsaw during the Holocaust.

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Followed by two exhibitions:

“AFTER THE HOLOCAUST. THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF POLISH JEWS 1944–1950 – a unique collection of documents, photographs and films illustrating the way the CCPJ operated.

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SALVAGED: The collections of paintings, drawings and sculpture held by the JHI Museum. According to the JHI, this exhibition is an attempt to break the silence surrounding these little known yet excellent artists.

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I also caught up with Aleksandra Dybkowska of the JHI Genealogy department

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Also with Wojciech Konończuk

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and Marla Raucher Osborn at FODZ

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Jewish Historical Institute

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw

An exhibition on the first floor

The Jewish Historical Institute (PolishŻydowski Instytut Historyczny or ŻIH) is a research institute in WarsawPoland, primarily dealing with the history of Jews in Poland

History

The Jewish Historical Institute was created in 1947 as a continuation of the Central Jewish Historical Commission, founded in 1944. The Jewish Historical Institute Association is the corporate body responsible for the building and the Institute’s holdings. The Institute falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. In 2009 it was named after Emanuel Ringelblum. The institute is a repository of documentary materials relating to the Jewish historical presence in Poland. It is also a centre for academic research, study and the dissemination of knowledge about the history and culture of Polish Jewry.

The most valuable part of the collection is the Warsaw Ghetto Archive, known as the Ringelblum Archive (collected by the Oyneg Shabbos). It contains about 6000 documents (about 30 000 individual pieces of paper).

Other important collections concerning World War II include testimonies (mainly of Jewish survivors of the Holocaust), memoirs and diaries, documentation of the Joint and Jewish Self-Help (welfare organizations active in Poland under the occupation), and documents from the Jewish Councils (Judenräte)

The section on the documentation of Jewish historical sites holds about 40 thousand photographs concerning Jewish life and culture in Poland.

The Institute has published a series of documents from the Ringelblum Archive, as well as numerous wartime memoirs and diaries.[1]

In 2011, Paweł Śpiewak, a Professor of Sociology at Warsaw University and former politician, was nominated as the Director of the Jewish Historical Institute by Bogdan Zdrojewski, Minister of Culture and National Heritage.[2]

See also

References

  1. Jump up ^ Stephan Stach Geschichtsschreibung und politische Vereinnahmungen: Das Jüdische Historische Institut in Warschau 1947-1968, in: Jahrbuch des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts / Simon Dubnow Institute Yearbook VII (2008), 401-431, ISBN 978-3-525-36934-0
  2. Jump up ^ Uncredited, Change at the top; Jewish Historical Institute. Retrieved 2012-07-29.

External links

 

  • Wikimedia Foundation

Polin Museum, Warsaw, Poland

Sunday 17  May 2015

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I arrived from London this morning and headed straight for the Polin Museum. I have visited the museum twice before in 2013 and 2014, but this is the first time since it officially opened in October 2014.

The selection of my images here indicates how remarkable and magnificent this museum is. I have visited many museums around the world over many years, and Polin is one of the best!

I took over 700 photos this afternoon, spent 5½ hours at the Core Exhibition and could have been there a few more hours! It is a “must visit” for anyone coming to Warsaw, Jewish or not!

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The Resource Centre

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Magdalena

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Marzena

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Closing time

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Mila 18

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Video

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich
Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw 011.JPG

The museum building
Established 2005 (opened April 2013)
Location Warsaw, Poland
Coordinates 52°14′58″N 20°59′34″E
Type Historical, cultural
Collection size History and culture of Polish Jews
Visitors expected 450,000
Director Dariusz Stola
Curator Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett
Website Museum official website

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (PolishMuzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto. The Hebrew word Polin in the museum’s name means, in English, either “Poland” or “rest here” and is related to a legend on the arrival of the first Jews in Poland.[1] The cornerstone was laid in 2007, and the museum was first opened on April 19, 2013.[2][3] The museum’s Core Exhibition opened in October 2014.[4] The museum features a multimedia narrative exhibition about the vibrant Jewish community that flourished in Poland for a thousand years up to the Holocaust.[5] The building, a postmodern structure in glass, copper, and concrete, was designed by Finnish architects Rainer Mahlamäki and Ilmari Lahdelma.[6]

History

President of the Republic of PolandLech Kaczynski, at the groundbreaking ceremony for the POLIN Museum, 26 June 2007

The idea for creating a major new museum in Warsaw dedicated to the history of Polish Jews was initiated in 1995 by the Association of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland.[7] In the same year, the Warsaw City Council allocated the land for this purpose in Muranów, Warsaw’s prewar Jewish neighborhood and site of the former Warsaw Ghetto, facing the Monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Heroes. In 2005, the Association of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland established a unique private-public partnership with the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and the City of Warsaw. The Museum’s first director was Jerzy Halbersztadt. In September 2006, a specially designed tent called Ohel (the Hebrew word for tent in English) was erected for exhibitions and events on the museum’s future location.[7]

An international architectural competition for designs for the building was launched in 2005, supported by a grant from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. On June 30, 2005 the jury announced the winner; a team of two Finnish architects, Rainer Mahlamäki and Ilmari Lahdelma.[8] On June 30, 2009 construction of the building was officially inaugurated. The project was to be finished in 33 months at a cost of PLN 150 million zlotyallocated by the Ministry and the City.[9] and a total cost of PLN 320 million zloty.[10][11]

The Museum opened the building and began its educational and cultural programs on April 19, 2013 on the 70th Anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. During the 18 months that followed, more than 180,000 visitors toured the building, visited the first temporary exhibitions, and took part in cultural and educational programs and events, including films, debates, workshops, performances, concerts and lectures. The Grand Opening, with the completed Core Exhibition, was on October 28, 2014.[12] The Core Exhibition documents and celebrates the thousand-year history of the Jewish community in Poland that was decimated by the Holocaust.[4][5]

Construction

Museum faces the Memorial to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Museum faces the memorial commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. The winner of the architectural competition was Rainer Mahlamäki, of the architectural studio ‘Lahdelma & Mahlamäki Oy in Helsinki, whose design was chosen from 100 submissions to the international architectural competition. The Polish firm Kuryłowicz & Associates was responsible for construction. The building’s minimalist exterior is clad with glass fins and copper mesh. Silk screened on the glass is the word Polin, in Latin and Hebrew letters.

The central feature of the building is its cavernous entrance hall. The main hall forms a high, undulating wall. The empty space is a symbol of cracks in the history of Polish Jews. Similar in shape to gorge, which could be a reference to the crossing of the Red Sea known from the Exodus. The museum is nearly 13,000 square meters of usable space. At the lowest level, in the basement of the building will be placed a main exhibition about history of Jews from the Middle Ages to modern times. The museum building also has a multipurpose auditorium with 480 seats, temporary exhibition rooms, education center, information center, play room for children, café, shop, and in the future kosher restaurant.

Hebrew and Latin letters of the word Polin

Since the museum presents the whole history of Jews in Poland, not only the period under German occupation, the designer wanted to avoid similarities to existing Holocaust museums (such as the Jewish Museum in Berlin and the museum at Yad Vashem) which had austere concrete structures. The architects kept the museum in the colors of sand, giving it a more approachable feeling.[13]

In 2008, the design of the museum was awarded the Chicago Athenaeum International Architecture Award.[14] In 2014, the designer Rainer Mahlamäki was awarded the Finlandia Prize for Architecture for his design of the museum.[15]

Organizational structure

The Core Exhibition’s academic team consists of Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (Program Director) of New York University, Hanna Zaremska of the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Adam Teller of Brown University, Igor Kąkolewski of the University of Warmia and Mazury, Marcin Wodziński of the University of WrocławSamuel Kassow of Trinity College, Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak of the Polish Center for Holocaust Research at the Polish Academy of Sciences, Helena Datner of the Jewish Historical Institute, and Stanisław Krajewski of Warsaw UniversityAntony Polonsky of Brandeis University is the Core Exhibition’s chief historian.[16]

Main hall

The North American Council of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews is a U.S. based non-profit organization supporting the foundation of the Museum.[17]

On June 17, 2009 the museum launched the Virtual Shtetl portal, which collects and provides access to essential information about Jewish life in Poland before and after the Holocaust in Poland. The portal now features more than 1,240 towns with maps, statistics, and image galleries based in large measure on material provided by local history enthusiasts and former residents of those places.[18]

Core Exhibition

The Core Exhibition occupies more than 4,000 m2 of space. It consists of eight galleries that document and celebrate the thousand-year history of the Jewish community in Poland – once the largest Jewish community in the world – that was almost entirely destroyed during the Holocaust. The exhibition includes a multimedia narrative with interactive installations, paintings and oral histories, among other features created by more than 120 scholars and curators. One item is a replica of the roof and ceiling of a 17th-century Gwoździec synagogue.[5][19] The galleries are:

  • Forest – This gallery tells the tale of how, fleeing from persecution in Western Europe, the Jews came to Poland. For the next 1,000 years, the country would become the largest European home for the Jewish community.
  • First Encounters (the Middle Ages) – This gallery is devoted to the first Jewish settlers in Poland. Visitors meet Ibrahim ibn Jakub, a Jewish diplomat from Cordoba, author of famous notes from a trip to Europe. One of the most interesting objects presented in the gallery is the first sentence written in Yiddish in the prayer book of 1272.

Gwoździec synagogue roof reconstruction

Reconstructed vault and bimah in the Museum of the History of Polish Jews

  • Paradisus Iudaeorum (15th and 16th centuries) – This gallery presents how the Jewish community was organized and what role Jews played in the country’s economy. One of the most important elements in this gallery is an interactive model of Kraków and Jewish Kazimierz, showing the rich culture of the local Jewish community. Visitors learn that religious tolerance in Poland made it a “Paradisus ludaeorum” (Jewish paradise). This golden age of the Jewish community in Poland ended with pogroms during the Khmelnitsky Uprising. This event is commemorated by a symbolic fire gall leading to the next gallery.
  • The Jewish Town (17th and 18th centuries) – This gallery presents the history of Polish Jews until the period of the partitions. It is shown by an example of a typical borderland town where Jews constituted a significant part of the population. The most important part of this gallery is a unique reconstruction of the roof and ceiling of Gwoździec, a wooden synagogue that was located in the Ukraine.

“On the Jewish Street” gallery with entrances to exhibition halls

  • Encounters with Modernity (19th century) – This gallery presents the time of the partitions when Jews shared the fate of Polish society divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia. The exhibition includes the role played by Jewish entrepreneurs, such as Izrael Kalmanowicz Poznański, in the industrial revolution in Polish lands. Visitors also learn about changes in traditional Jewish rituals and other areas of life, and the emergence of new social movements, religious and political. This period is also marked by the emergence of modern anti-semitism, which Polish Jews had to face.
  • On the Jewish Street – This gallery is devoted to the period of the Second Polish Republic, which is seen – despite the challenges that the young country had to face – as a second golden age in the history of Polish Jews. A graphical timeline is presented with the most important political events of the interwar period. The exhibition also highlights Jewish film, theatre and literature.
  • Holocaust – This gallery shows the tragedy of the Holocaust during the German occupation of Poland, which resulted in the deaths of approximately 90% of the 3.3 million Polish Jews. Visitors are shown the history of the Warsaw Ghetto and introduced to Emanuel Ringelblum and Oneg Shabbat. The gallery also covers the horrors experienced by the non-Jewish majority population of Poland during World War II as well as their reactions and responses to the extermination of Jews.
  • Postwar Years – The last gallery shows the period after 1945, when most of the survivors of the Holocaust emigrated, mostly because of the post-war takeover of Poland by the Soviets and the state sponsored anti-Semitic campaign in 1968 conducted by the communist authorities. An important date is the year 1989, marking the end of Soviet domination, followed by the revival of a small but dynamic Jewish community in Poland.

The exhibition was developed by an international team of scholars and museum professionals from Poland, the United States and Israel as well as the Museum’s curatorial team under the direction of Prof. Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett.[19]

See also

Notes and references

  1. Jump up ^ “A 1000-Year History of Polish Jews” (PDF). POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
  2. Jump up ^ “Kolejna budowa spóźniona. Czy jakaś powstanie na czas?”Gazeta Wyborcza. April 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ “Little Left of Warsaw Ghetto 70 Years After Uprising”Yahoo!7. April 17, 2013.
  4. Jump up to: a b “About the Museum”, POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews, accessed December 18, 2014
  5. Jump up to: a b c The Associated Press (June 24, 2007), Poland’s new Jewish museum to mark community’s thousand-year history.
  6. Jump up ^ Polish, Jewish leaders break ground on landmark Jewish museum The Associated Press, June 26, 2007
  7. Jump up to: a b A.J. Goldmann, “Polish Museum Set To Open Spectacular Window on Jewish Past” The Jewish Daily Forward, April 01, 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ “Konkurs na projekt” [Contest for the design of the Museum]. Stołeczny Zarząd Rozbudowy Miasta.
  9. Jump up ^ The Association for the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland took responsibility for creating the Core Exhibition and raising the funds for it at a cost of about PLN 120 million zlotyRozpoczęto budowę Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich. Mkidn.gov.pl.
  10. Jump up ^ http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm7.nsf/biuletyn.xsp?skrnr=KSP-96
  11. Jump up ^ http://www.mkidn.gov.pl/media/docs/2013/20130416_mzhp.pdf
  12. Jump up ^ Znamy datę otwarcia wystawy Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich 22 January 2014
  13. Jump up ^ Museum of the History of Polish Jews by Lahdelma & Mahlamäki Dezeen Magazine, 3 October 2013.
  14. Jump up ^ International Architecture Awards: 2008 Winners The Chicago Athenaeum.
  15. Jump up ^ “Arkkitehtuurin ensimmäinen Finlandia-palkinto: Rainer Mahlamäen puolanjuutalaisen historian museo Varsovassa”. Helsingin Sanomat. 4 Nov 2014. Retrieved 5 Nov 2014.
  16. Jump up ^ Museum of the History of Polish Jews: About the museum at JewishMuseum.org.
  17. Jump up ^ The North American Council of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews.
  18. Jump up ^ “The Virtual Shtetl”
  19. Jump up to: a b “Core Exhibition”, POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews, accessed December 18, 2014

The Wiener Library, London

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Wiener Library

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide is the world’s oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. Founded in 1933 as an information bureau that informed Jewish communities and governments worldwide about the persecution of the Jews under the Nazis, it was transformed into a research institute and public access library after the end of World War II. The official name of the institution is “The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide”[1] and is now situated in