Professor Kassow, YIVO, Polin & Poland

Video of the opening statement in an online YIVO course run by Professor Samuel Kassow, world authority on Ashkenazi Jews.

 

Samuel Kassow

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dr. Samuel D. Kassow (born 1946) is an American historian of the history of Ashkenazi Jewry. He was born in a displaced persons‘ camp in Stuttgart, Germany. His mother survived because a classmate hid her and her sister in a dug-out underneath the barn on his family’s farm, whilst his father was arrested by the Russians and spent the duration of the war in a Soviet prison camp.[1][2] He grew up in New Haven, Connecticut.[3] Kassow earned his B.A. from Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, in 1966, his M.Sc. from the London School of Economics in 1968, and his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1976. He is married to Lisa Kassow, director of the Zachs Hillel House at Trinity College. He has two daughters named Miri and Serena.[4] Kassow was the Charles Northam Professor at Trinity College for many years.

Kassow was a consultant to the Museum of History of the Polish Jews, which opened on the site of the Warsaw Ghetto, and was responsible for two of the eight core exhibitions. [5]

In his books, Who Will Write Our History? Rediscovering a Hidden Archive From the Warsaw Ghetto and Who Will Write Our History? Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive, Kassow speaks about the importance of preserving historical documents and the past. He describes the historical events going on during World War Two in the 1940s that affected and eventually eliminated the Warsaw Ghetto. His main focus is the three archives created in absolute secrecy by a small group of people that lived in the Warsaw Ghetto which were uncovered and studied about ten years later.[6]

His 2007 book Who Will Write Our History is currently being adapted to a documentary film of the same title, directed by Roberta Grossman and produced by Nancy Spielberg. It is set to be released in 2017.

Books

  • Students, Professors, and the State inTsarist Russia: 1884-1917, University of California Press, 1989. ISBN 0-520-05760-0.
  • Between Tsar and People: the Search for a Public Identity in Tsarist Russia. Edith Clowes, Samuel Kassow, James L. West eds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 1991. ISBN 0-691-03153-3.
  • The Distinctive Life of East European Jewry, YIVO, New York 2004
  • Who will Write our History: Emanuel Ringelblum and the Oyneg Shabes Archive, Indiana University Press, 2007

External links

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YIVO

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
YIVO
Center for Jewish History NYC.jpg
Established 1925
Location 15 West 16th Street, ManhattanNew YorkUS
Coordinates 40.738047°N 73.993821°WCoordinates40.738047°N 73.993821°W
Director Jonathan Brent
Public transit access Subway14th Street – Union Square
Website YIVO

YIVO (Yiddishייִוואָ), established in 1925 in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania) as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddishייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוטYiddish Scientific Institute[1]), is an organization that preserves, studies, and teaches the cultural history of Jewish life throughout Eastern Europe, Germany and Russia, as well as orthographylexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. (The word yidisher means both “Yiddish” and “Jewish”.) The English name of the organization was changed to the Institute for Jewish Research subsequent to its relocation to New York City, although it is still primarily known by its Yiddish acronym. YIVO is now a member of the Center for Jewish History.

Activities

YIVO preserves manuscripts, rare books, and diaries, and other Yiddish sources. The YIVO Library in New York contains over 385,000 volumes[1] dating from as early as the 16th century.[2][3] The YIVO Archives holds over 24,000,000 documents, photographs, recordings, posters, films, and other artifacts.[1] Together, they comprise the world’s largest collection of materials related to the history and culture of Central and East European Jewry and the American Jewish immigrant experience.[1] The Archives and Library collections also hold many works in twelve major languages,[4] including EnglishFrenchGermanHebrewRussianPolish, and Ladino .[4]

YIVO also functions as a publisher of Yiddish-language books and of periodicals including YIVO Bleter[5] (founded 1931), Yedies Fun YIVO (founded 1929), and Yidishe Shprakh(founded 1941). It is also responsible for such English-language publications as the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Studies (founded 1946).

History

YIVO was initially proposed by Yiddish linguist and writer Nochum Shtif (1879–1933). He characterized his advocacy of Yiddish as “realistic” Jewishnationalism, contrasted to the “visionary” Hebraists and the “self-hating” assimilationists who adopted Russian or Polish. Other key founders included philologist and theater director Max Weinreich (1894–1969) and historian Elias Tcherikover (1881–1943).[6]

Founded at a Berlin conference in 1925, but headquartered in Wilno – a city then in Eastern Poland with a large Jewish population – the early YIVO also had branches in Berlin, Warsaw and New York City. Over the next decade, smaller groups arose in many of the other countries with Ashkenazic Jewish populations.

In YIVO’s first decades, Tcherikover headed the historical research section, which also included Shimon DubnowSaul M. GinsburgAbraham Menes, and Jacob ShatzkyLeibush Lehrer (1887–1964) headed a section including psychologists and educators Abraham GolombH. S. Kasdan, and A. A. RobackJacob Lestschinsky (1876–1966) headed a section of economists and demographers Ben-AdirLiebman Hersh, and Moshe Shalit. Weinreich’s language and literature section included Judah Leib (“J.L.”) CahanAlexander HarkavyJudah A. JoffeSelig KalmanovitchShmuel NigerNoah Prilutzky, and Zalman Reisen.[7] YIVO also collected and preserved ethnographic materials under the direction of its Ethnographic Committee.[8] In 1925, YIVO’s honorary board of trustees or “Curatorium” consisted of Simon DubnowAlbert EinsteinSigmund FreudMoses GasterEdward Sapirand Chaim Zhitlowsky.

From 1934–1940, YIVO operated a graduate training program known as the Aspirantur. Named after Zemach Shabad, YIVO’s chairman, the program held classes and guided students in conducting original research in the field of Jewish studies. Many of the students’ projects were sociological in nature (reflecting the involvement of Max Weinreich) and gathered information on contemporary Jewish life in the Vilna region.[9]

The Nazi advance into Eastern Europe caused YIVO to move its operations to New York. A second important center established as the Fundacion IWO in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[10] All four directors of YIVO’s research sections were already in the Americas when the war broke out or were able to make their way there.[11] For their own reasons, the Nazis carried the bulk of YIVO’s archives to Berlin, where the papers survived the war intact, and eventually were moved to YIVO in New York

The Chicago YIVO Society is a third active center today .[12]

Publications

YIVO has undertaken many major scholarly publication projects, the most recent being The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, published in March 2008 in cooperation with Yale University Press.[13] Under the leadership of editor-in-chief Gershon David Hundert, professor of history and of Jewish Studies at McGill University in Montreal, this unprecedented reference work systematically represents the history and culture of Eastern European Jews from their first settlement in the region to the present day. More than 1,800 alphabetical entries encompass a vast range of topics including religion, folklore, politics, art, music, theater, language and literature, places, organizations, intellectual movements, and important figures. The two-volume set also features more than 1,000 illustrations and 55 maps. With original contributions from an international team of 450 distinguished scholars, the encyclopedia covers the region between Germany and the Ural Mountains, from which more than 2.5 million Jews emigrated to the United States between 1870 and 1920.

The first complete English-language edition of Max Weinreich’s classic book History of the Yiddish Language,[14] edited by Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser, was published in two volumes in 2008.

 

Polin Museum, Warsaw, Poland

Orla, Poland – The Memory Lasts – Video

In case you missed the video from my last post

“The memory lasts” – the celebration commemorating the deportation of Jews from Orla
November 3, 2014 r. In the synagogue in Orla held the commemoration of 72 anniversary of the deportation of Jews from Orla. As part of the ceremony took place “Concert of Remembrance” starring Nicholas Haskin and volunteers “Shomer International” with Belarus and movies are shown Wheels Regional School in Orla titled “Ghetto in Orla,” and “Yes, we remember them.” After the meeting in the synagogue all went to the cemetery, where read 320 names of Jews deported from our village.
The ceremony was attended by the Secretary of the Municipality Orla – Irena Odzijewicz, Haim Dov Beliak – Rabbi of Beit Poland, Representative of the Governor for National Minorities and Ethnic – Maciej Tefelski, Vice-President of the Society of Friends of Jewish Culture – Dariusz Szada-Borzyszkowski, founder of the Association “We are looking for Polish” – Tomasz Wisniewski, Director of the Municipal Cultural Centre in Orla – Anna Niesteruk, Director of the School in Orla – Maria Tomczuk, teachers and pupils of secondary schools and the local inhabitants.

Orla, Poland – The Memory Lasts

Orla is the birthplace of my zaida, Nachum Mendel Rabinowitz.

It is 55.5km from Bialystok in NE Poland

See translated text below

Screen Shot 2014-11-13 at 9.34.41 amAktualności

“Pamięć trwa” – obchody upamiętnienia wywózki żydów z Orli

3 listopada 2014 r. w Synagodze w Orli odbyły się obchody upamiętniające 72 rocznicę wywózki Żydów z Orli. W ramach uroczystości odbył się “Koncert Pamięci” z udziałem Mikołaja Haskina i wolontariuszy “Shomer International” z Białorusi oraz zostały przedstawione filmy Szkolnego Koła Regionalnego w Orli p.t.: “Getto w Orli” i “Tak ich pamiętamy”. Po spotkaniu w Synagodze wszyscy udali się na kirkut, gdzie odczytano 320 nazwisk Żydów, wywiezionych z naszej miejscowości.

W uroczystości wzięli udział: Sekretarz Gminy Orla – Irena Odzijewicz, Haim Dov Beliak – Rabin z Bejt Polska, Pełnomocnik Wojewody do Spraw Mniejszości Narodowych i Etnicznych – Maciej Tefelski, Wiceprezes Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Kultury Żydowskiej – Dariusz Szada-Borzyszkowski, Założyciel Stowarzyszenia “Szukamy Polski” – Tomasz Wiśniewski, Dyrektor Gminnego Ośrodka Kultury w Orli – Anna Niesteruk, Dyrektor Zespołu Szkół w Orli – Maria Tomczuk, nauczyciele i uczniowie klas gimnazjalnych oraz mieszkańcy gminy.

I translated this into English via Google Translate:

“The memory lasts” – the celebration commemorating the deportation of Jews from Orla
November 3, 2014 r. In the synagogue in Orla held the commemoration of 72 anniversary of the deportation of Jews from Orla. As part of the ceremony took place “Concert of Remembrance” starring Nicholas Haskin and volunteers “Shomer International” with Belarus and movies are shown Wheels Regional School in Orla titled “Ghetto in Orla,” and “Yes, we remember them.” After the meeting in the synagogue all went to the cemetery, where read 320 names of Jews deported from our village.
The ceremony was attended by the Secretary of the Municipality Orla – Irena Odzijewicz, Haim Dov Beliak – Rabbi of Beit Poland, Representative of the Governor for National Minorities and Ethnic – Maciej Tefelski, Vice-President of the Society of Friends of Jewish Culture – Dariusz Szada-Borzyszkowski, founder of the Association “We are looking for Polish” – Tomasz Wisniewski, Director of the Municipal Cultural Centre in Orla – Anna Niesteruk, Director of the School in Orla – Maria Tomczuk, teachers and pupils of secondary schools and the local inhabitants.
Watch video:


fot. Tomasz Wiśniewski

Created by raptorf22

Screen Shot 2014-11-13 at 9.35.03 am

The History of Orla – via Google Translate:

Orla Municipality has a rich historical past and tradition. The beginnings of Orli date back to ancient times, as evidenced by the area found objects, stone and bronze.The name of the town derives from the supposedly lived here once eagles, or on elements of water, mainly Orlanki river, near which it is situated. The earliest message archival record on Orli is derived from 1507. It concerns land grant by the King, where he now lies Orla, as well as the surrounding areas in the district of Bielsko, writer, palatine Trotsky Jasiek Iwanowiczowi. These were villages Koszel, Wierwieczki, Topczykały which were quickly populated strangers and free peasantry. Along with granting the king allowed the palatine Trotsky set up in Orla city, which took place at a later date.

From 1510r. Orla was owned by the treasurer of the Lithuanian Bohusz Bohowitynowicza, who settled in Podlasie Brzeski. Then Koszel and Wierwieczki villages were converted manor house in Trakai. A similar fate befell the village Topczykały.

In 1529. Bohusz Bohowitynowicz Orli heir bequeathed property Orlańską old daughter, Annie, who having married in 1539. Stanislaus Łęczna Orleans brought him a dowry. In 1541r. King Sigismund I issued an order saying so, Bielski subjected to raid goods Orla. The next owners were the Orli princes Olelkowicze Słuccy arms pursuit. From them, and in 1585 took good Orlański in his hands Radzivills. Then the Eagle as a settlement is of particular importance in economic and political life of the region then. Hetman Grand Duchy of Lithuania Krzysztof Radziwill erected here in 1622. Castle and Calvinist. He created a vast complex of the palace court, Italian garden, sacred objects, and the grange. An integral part of the manor was the church of St. John the Theologian castle. To date, none of the preserved castle.

Due to the huge efforts Hetman orlańskim townspeople already in 1618r. Vilnius was granted a number of rights and promised to give the Magdeburg rights, provided that the current pace of growth. Succeeded by Hetman Krzysztof Radziwill – Janusz Radziwill in 1633 confirmed the need to give the benefit of the city. In 1634. Orla obtained municipal rights. It was a period full of prosperity of the city and surrounding areas. In this then, after the worship of believers, many trade fairs were held on the established Mart, trade flourished cultural and political life. The city became a center of the Calvinist movement. In 1644r. was held here under the chairmanship of Janusz Radziwill, synod makers Polish and Lithuanian. Besides held numerous meetings Calvinists.

During the wars with Sweden in the years 1655-1657 the city suffered heavily, and the followers of Calvinism extinct. In 1726r. suspended in the congregation a new bell but the same year the church invaded the bishop of Lodz and the bell is answered. According to the church archives in the possession Calvinists to 1732. Around 1754 the church was sold by his wife Radziwill – the Jews. According to legend, the wife demanded in return Radziwill 10k. cents, which were to be paid within one hour, but the same grosikami. According to another version 2.5 thousand. cents were delivered in one night. It should be noted that the Eagle was the beginning of Jewish settlement as early as the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. According to the census of 1616. There were 17 Jewish houses and wooden synagogue. In 1655r. 540 Jews lived next to the Orthodox and Catholic. In 1765. Jewish community in Orla and the surrounding villages had 1358 followers of Moses and was twice the size of the municipality of Bialystok. Good, liberal laws and privileges given to allow the Jews to the unshakable existences and peaceful life alongside people of other faiths.

During this time, Eagle was owned by the family Branickis. In 1795. as a result of the efforts of Isabella Branicka, orlańscy Jews received tax breaks. In the same year under the treaties subdivision, Podlasie coincided with Prussia. Dissection of the Republic changed your relationship and was the cause of the sharp drop in the population. In 1799r. Orla had 486 residents, including 102 Jews.

In 1807. under the Treaty of Tilsit Orla was incorporated into the so-called. Bialystok circuit. During this time, the town has a population of 1586 inhabitants in the 1102 Orthodox Jews. In 1842. was included in the Government of Grodno, then became the property of Prince Wittgenstejna- husband of Princess Radziwill. In 1874. Wittgenstejn sold lands Orlański Orli residents and the surrounding countryside on the property. Then the Eagle lost its municipal rights, and along with this there was a setback in its development. In 1897. the number of inhabitants was about 3 thousand. of which the followers of Moses was 80%. In 1921. was in the district of the province of Bialystok Bielsko. In this period of cohabitation Orthodox community, Catholic, Jewish and starozakonnej układało in Orla correctly. Attend to common schools, created political organizations, have brought social activists and party. In the interwar period, the municipality of Communist Party of Western Belarus, Belarusian Peasants ‘and Workers’ Union Jewish community formed in Orla small industry, trade and services. There were three tile factory, which was owned by a Jewish family Wajsztejnów. Place of employment in kaflarniach were several hundred people from Orla and the surrounding countryside.

In 1937. Orla was destroyed in the range of about 30% of the buildings by fires started by the Jewish inhabitant. As a result of huge losses, many families have lost their place of residence and occupation. In 1939,. Began World War II. Orleans passed by Soviet troops and German. Residents affected by the tragic events. Inside Orli and ordered the resettlement area. The Jewish population was placed in two ghettos and then completely removed from the orlańskiego landscape. In the postwar period Orla village community had about 1,100 inhabitants. Most of them were engaged in farm work, some found employment in a few factories, such as tile factory, brickyard, concrete.

Currently, Orla Municipality is located in the south-eastern part of the region of Podlasie. It borders the municipalities of: Bielsk Podlaski, Dubicze Cerkiewne, Boćki and Czyz. Distance seat of the municipality of the district ie. The city Bielsk Podlaski is 12 km. The area municipalities run routes, the national road to the border of the state, provincial road to Białowieża and numerous county and municipal roads. Rivers flow; Orlanka and proteins. The total area of the municipality is 15 968 ha of agricultural land in the 12 789 ha and 1862 ha of forests. The commune consists of 22 villages, which are home to a total of 3 214 inhabitants (as of 31.12.2010.).

Wnętrze synagogi w Orli

(fot. M. Gołownia)