My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan
using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.
My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.
Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel # 1 to 11
The Financial District
South Ferry is at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City and is the embarkation point for ferries to Staten Island (Staten Island Ferry, through the Staten Island Ferry Whitehall Terminal) and Governors Island.
The origin of the name South Ferry is probably one of the more misunderstood trivia, even to New Yorkers accustomed to using it in a geographical sense. One would suppose that it is so called because it is at the southern tip of Manhattan, and it hosts ferries. In actuality, it was the name of the South Ferry, one of several ferries between what were then the separate cities of New York and Brooklyn. The “Old Ferry”, which later was renamed the “Fulton Ferry“, crossed between Manhattan and Brooklyn from streets that in each city would eventually be renamed “Fulton Street” after the ferry company. The “New Ferry” crossed further east, between Catherine Street in Manhattan, and Main Street in Brooklyn.
As the City of Brooklyn grew, the area south of Atlantic Avenue (known as “South Brooklyn“) began to become built-up, but lacked easy access to the ferry terminals in the northern parts of the city of Brooklyn. Thus, a new ferry was established in 1836 to take passengers directly to Atlantic Avenue and the southern parts of the City of Brooklyn, and so was called the “South Ferry”. The ferry connected to the foot of Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn and the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad (later part of the Long Island Rail Road) through the Cobble Hill Tunnel. In addition, South Ferry was the name of the Brooklyn landing and ferry house of the aforementioned ferry.
South Ferry is served by subway stations including:
- South Ferry on the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line; serving the 1 train (temporarily closed)
- South Ferry loops on the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line and the IRT Lexington Avenue Line; serving the 1 train (there are two platforms, of which one is open)
- Whitehall Street – South Ferry on the BMT Broadway Line; serving the R trains
- Bowling Green on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line; serving the 4 5 trains (some Lexington Avenue Line trains stopped atSouth Ferry until 1977)
- Broad Street on the BMT Nassau Street Line; serving the J Z trains during weekdays only
Also serving the ferry terminal directly is the M15 Select Bus Service route via a bus loop directly at the front door of the terminal; other bus routes, such as the M5 and M20 servicing the area stop on nearby streets.
In earlier years, South Ferry also hosted a four-track elevated terminal with access to all Manhattan elevated train lines running up Second, Third, Sixth and Ninth Avenues. These lines were closed in stages from 1938 to 1955.
Aerial view of Battery Park. To the left Pier A, next to it Castle Clinton, and to the right South Ferry Terminal, behind the park the Financial District can be seen (2010)
|Location||at the Battery, the southern tip ofManhattan Island in New York City, facing New York Harbor|
|Area||25 acres (10 ha)|
Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 ha) public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, facingNew York Harbor. The Battery is named for the artillery batteries that were positioned there in the city’s early years to protect the settlement behind them. At the north end of the park is Castle Clinton, the often repurposed last remnant of the defensive works which inspired the name of the park, the former fireboat station Pier A and Hope Garden, a memorial to AIDS victims. At the other end of the park is Battery Gardens restaurant, next to the United States Coast Guard Battery Building. Along the waterfront, Statue Cruises offers ferries to the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. The park is also the site of the East Coast Memorial which commemorates U.S. servicemen who died in coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean during World War II, and several other memorials.
To the northwest of the park lies Battery Park City, a planned community built on landfill in the 1970s and 80s, which includes Robert F. Wagner Park and the Battery Park City Promenade. Together with Hudson River Park, a system of greenspaces, bikeways and promenades now extend up the Hudson shoreline. A bikeway might be built through the park that will connect the Hudson River and East River parts of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway. Across State Street to the northeast stands the old U.S. Customs House, now used as a branch of the National Museum of the American Indian and the district U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Peter Minuit Plaza abuts the southeast end of the park, directly in front of the South Ferry Terminal of the Staten Island Ferry.
Stop 1: Castle Clinton
Stop 2: Monument to the Immigrants
Stop 4: The Statue Of Liberty
Stop 5: Ellis Island
Museum of Jewish Heritage
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2014)|
The Museum of Jewish Heritage, located in Battery Park City in Manhattan, New York CIty, is a living memorial to those who perished in the Holocaust. The Museum honors those who died by celebrating their lives – cherishing the traditions that they embraced, examining their achievements and faith, and affirming the vibrant worldwide Jewish community that is their legacy today. The building, designed by Roche-Dinkeloo, is topped by a pyramid structure called the Living Memorial to the Holocaust.
Since the Museum first opened its doors in 1997, visitors of all ages and backgrounds have gained a perspective on 20th and 21st century Jewish history and heritage. Now in its second decade, the Museum has welcomed more than 1.5 million visitors from all over the world.
The two Biblical quotes that define the Museum’s mission – “Remember, Never Forget” and “There Is Hope For Your Future” – also define the Museum’s perspective on the events of the 20th and 21st century Jewish experience. Although the Museum centers on life before, during, and after the Holocaust, the obligation to remember is enriched and enhanced by a commitment to the principles of social justice, education, and culture in the Jewish community and beyond.
Included in the Museum are special exhibitions, public programming, and contemplative spaces, which are intended to enrich the visitor experience.
JewishGen is the leading internet pioneer for Jewish genealogy and provides free online access to a vast collection of Jewish ancestral records in a simple, understandable, and searchable format. For many Jews, knowledge of their family history perished in the Holocaust. JewishGen and the Museum affiliated in 2003, helping the Museum to fulfill its mission of memory and legacy. JewishGen features over 20 million records, 5 million family trees, 1.7 million burial records, hundreds of translated Yizkor (memorial) books, research tools, a family finder, educational classes, and many other constantly updated resources.
Stop 11: Subway Kiosk
Stop 12: US Custom House & the National Museum of the American Indian
Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House
U.S. Custom House
|Location||1 Bowling Green
Manhattan, New York City
|Architect||Cass Gilbert, Daniel Chester French|
|NRHP Reference #||72000889|
|Added to NRHP||January 31, 1972|
|Designated NHL||December 8, 1976|
The Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House is a building in New York City built 1902–1907 by the federal government to house the duty collection operations for the port of New York. It is located near the southern tip of Manhattan, roughly on the same spot as Fort Amsterdam, the original center of the settlement of New Amsterdam. Its address is 1 Bowling Green. The building is now the home of the New York branch of the National Museum of the American Indian as well as the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. As of 2012, it is also the home to the National Archives at New York City.
Stop 13: Bowling Green
Bowling Green Fence and Park
|Bowling Green in a composite photograph taken from the steps of the U.S. Custom House looking north|
|Location||Southern end ofBroadway, New York City|
|NRHP Reference #||80002673|
|Added to NRHP||April 9, 1980|
Bowling Green is a small public park in Lower Manhattan at the foot of Broadway next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam. Built in 1733, originally including a bowling green, it is the oldest public park in New York City and is surrounded by its original 18th century fence. At its northern end is the Charging Bull sculpture. Bowling Green Fence and Park is listed on the U.S.National Register of Historic Places.
The park has long been a center of activity in the city going back to the days of New Amsterdam, when it served as a cattle market between 1638 and 1647, and parade ground. In 1675, the Common Council designated the “plaine afore the forte” for an annual market of “graine, cattle and other produce of the country”. In 1677 the city’s first public well was dug in front of Fort Amsterdam at Bowling Green. In 1733, the Common Council leased a portion of the parade grounds to three prominent neighboring landlords for apeppercorn a year, upon their promise to create a park that would be “the delight of the Inhabitants of the City” and add to its “Beauty and Ornament”; the improvements were to include a “bowling green” with “walks therein”. The surrounding streets were not paved with cobblestones until 1744.
On August 21, 1770, the British government erected a 4,000 pound (1,800 kg) gilded leadequestrian statue of King George III in Bowling Green; the King was dressed in Roman garb in the style of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius. The statue had been commissioned in 1766, along with a statue of William Pitt, from the prominent London sculptor Joseph Wilton, as a celebration of victory after the Seven Years’ War.
With the rapid deterioration of relations with the mother country after 1770, the statue became a magnet for the Bowling Green protests; in 1773, the city passed an anti-graffiti and anti-desecration law to counter vandalism against the monument, and a protective cast-iron fence, which still stands, was built along the perimeter of the park. On July 9, 1776, after theDeclaration of Independence was read to Washington‘s troops at the current site of City Hall, localSons of Liberty rushed down Broadway to Bowling Green, where they toppled the statue. The fence post finials of cast-iron crowns on the protective fence were sawed off, with the saw marks still visible today. The event is one of the most enduring images in the city’s history. According to folklore, the statue was chopped up and shipped to a Connecticut foundry under the direction ofOliver Wolcott to be made into 42,088 patriot bullets at 20 bullets per pound (2,104.4 pounds). The statue’s head was to have been paraded about town on pike-staffs, but was recovered by Loyalistsand sent to England. Eight pieces of the lead statue are preserved in the New-York Historical Society; one in the Museum of the City of New York as well as one in Connecticut  (estimated total of 260/270 pounds); The event has been depicted over the years in several works of art, including an 1854 painting by William Walcutt, and an 1859 painting by Johannes Adam Simon Oertel.
The marble slab of the statue’s pedestal was first used for a tombstone of a Major John Smith of the Black Watch who died in 1783; when Smith’s grave site was leveled in 1804, the slab became a stone step at two successive mansions; in 1880 the inscription was rediscovered and the slab was transferred to the New-York Historical Society. The monument base can be seen in the background of the portrait ofGeorge Washington painted by John Trumbull in 1790, conserved in the City Hall. The William Pitt statue is in the New-York Historical Society.
Following the Revolution, the remains of the fort facing Bowling Green were demolished (1790) and part of the rubble used to extend the Battery towards the west. In its place a grand Government House was built, suitable, it was hoped, for a President’s House, with a four-columned portico facing across Bowling Green and up Broadway. Governor John Jay later inhabited it. When the state capital was moved to Albany, the building served as a boarding house and then the custom house before being demolished in 1815. Elegant townhouses were built around the park, which remained largely the private domain of the residents, though now some of the Tory patricians of New York were replaced by Republican ones; leading New York merchants, led by Abraham Kennedy, in a mansion at 1 Broadway that had a 56-foot facade under a central pediment and a front towards the Battery Parade, as the new piece of open ground was called. The Hon. John Watts, whose summer place was Rose Hill, Manhattan, Chancellor Robert Livingston at no. 5, Stephen Whitney at no. 7, and John Stevens, all constructed brick residences in Federal style facing Bowling Green.
The Alexander Macomb House (New York City), the second Presidential Mansion, stood north of the park at 39-41 Broadway. PresidentGeorge Washington occupied it from February 23 to August 30, 1790, before the U.S. capital moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
By 1850, however, with the opening of Lafayette Street, then of Washington Square Park and Fifth Avenue, the general northward migration of residences in Manhattan led to the conversion of the residences into the shipping offices, resulting in full public access to the park.
The park suffered neglect after World War II, but was restored by the city in the 1970s and is now one of the most heavily traveled plazas in the city. The Bowling Green Fence and Park were listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
In 1982 the Irish Institute of New York installed a plaque in Bowling Green park commemorating an important religious liberty challenge which occurred in Manhattan. Reverend Francis Makemie, the founder of American Presbyterianism, challenged the edict of Lord Cornbury by preaching at the home of William Jackson near by the Park. He was arrested in the Catholic colony and charged with preaching a “pernicious doctrine”, but later acquitted.
In 1989, the sculpture Charging Bull by Arturo Di Modica was installed at the northern tip of the park by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation after it had been confiscated by the police following its illegal installation on Wall Street. The sculpture has become one of the beloved and recognizable landmarks of the Financial District.
The pool and fountain in the park were temporarily modified when the park was used as a filming location for The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (2010 film) in early June, 2009. Between shoots, equipment was stored in the park and on nearby streets.
The south end of the plaza is bounded by the front entrance of Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, which houses the New York branch of the Smithsonian Institution’sNational Museum of the American Indian and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Manhattan Division). Previously there was a public street along the south edge of the park, also called “Bowling Green”, but since this area was needed for a modern entrance to Bowling Green subway station, the road was eliminated and paved over with cobblestones. The eponymous New York City Subway station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, opened in 1905 and serving the IRT Lexington Avenue Line‘s4 5 trains, is located under the plaza. Entrances dating from both 1905 and more recent renovations are located in and near the plaza.The park is a teardrop-shaped plaza formed by the branching of Broadway as it nears Whitehall. The park is a fenced-in grassy area with benches that are popular lunchtime destinations for workers in the nearby Financial District. There is a fountain in the center.
- Alexander Hamilton US Custom House to the south
- 1 Broadway, the United States Lines-Panama Pacific Line Building
- Bowling Green Building, 11 Broadway (1895–98, W. and G. Audsley, later serving the White Star Line)
- Cunard Building, 25 Broadway (1921, Benjamin Wistar Morris, with Carrère and Hastings)
- 26 Broadway, the Standard Oil Company Building, on the east side of Broadway, facing the Cunard building (1922, Carrère and Hastings with Shreve, Lamb & Blake)
- 2 Broadway — the one stylistic intruder — (1959–60, Emery Roth & Sons, resurfaced in 1999 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), a Modernist glass wall that replaced the distinguished Produce Exchange Building (1881–84, George B. Post), as an “acceptable sacrifice” intended to spur financial district rebuilding
Charging Bull, a 3,200-kilogram (7,100 lb) bronze sculpture in Bowling Green, designed by Arturo Di Modica, stands 11 feet (3.4 m) tall and measures 16 feet (4.9 m) long.The oversize sculpture depicts a bull, the symbol of aggressive financial optimism and prosperity, leaning back on its haunches and with its head lowered as if ready to charge. The sculpture is both a popular tourist destination which draws thousands of people a day, as well as “one of the most iconic images of New York” and a “Wall Street icon”symbolizing “Wall Street” and the Financial District.
Stop 14: Charging Bull
Stop 15: # One Broadway
Stop 21: Jewish Plymouth Rock
Stop 22: The Grand Canal
Stop 25: Fraunces Tavern
|South front of Fraunces Tavern on Broad Street|
|Location||54 Pearl Street, New York, New York, USA|
|NRHP Reference #||08000140|
|Added to NRHP||March 6, 2008|
|Designated NYCL||November 23, 1965|
Fraunces Tavern Block
|North and west fronts of Fraunces Tavern on Pearl Street at Broad Street|
|Location||Bounded by Pearl Street,Coenties Slip, Water Street and Broad Street, New York, New York, USA|
Fraunces Tavern in New York City is a tavern, restaurant and museum housed in a conjectural reconstruction of a building that played a prominent role in pre-Revolution and American Revolution history. The building, located at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street, has been owned by Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York Inc. since 1904, which claims it is Manhattan‘s oldest surviving building. The building is a tourist site and a part of the American Whiskey Trail and the New York Freedom Trail.
Stop: 27: First Jewish Settlement
From Oscar Israelowitz’s book
History of the Jews in New York City
1654 – 1881
The first significant group of Jews to come to New York, then the colony New Amsterdam, came in September 1654 as refugees from Recife, Brazil. Portugal had just re-conquered what is now known of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco from the Netherlands, and the Sephardi Jews there promptly fled. Most went to Amsterdam, but twenty-three headed for New Amsterdam instead. They were greeted by some Ashkenazimwho had preceded them by just a few weeks. Governor Peter Stuyvesant was at first unwilling to accept them but succumbed to pressure from the Dutch West India Company–itself pressed by Jewish stockholders–to let them remain. Nevertheless, he imposed numerous restrictions and taxes on his Jewish subjects. Eventually, many of these Jews left.
When the British took the colony from the Dutch in 1664, the only Jewish name on the requisite oath of loyalty given to residents was Asser Levy. This is the only record of a Jewish presence at the time, until 1680 when some of Levy’s relatives arrived from Amsterdam shortly before he died.
The first synagogue, the Sephardi Shearith Israel, was established in 1682, but it did not get its own building until 1730. Over time, the synagogue became dominant in Jewish life, organizing social services and mandating affiliation for all New York Jews. Even though by 1720 Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim, the Sephardi customs were retained.
An influx of German Jews followed the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. The increasing number of Ashkenazim led to the founding of the city’s second synagogue, B’nai Jeshurun, in 1825. Several others followed in rapid succession, including the first Polish one, Congregation Shaare Zedek, in 1839. In 1845, the first Reform temple, Congregation Emanu-El of New York opened.
By this time numerous communal aid societies were formed. These were usually quite small, and a single synagogue might be associated with more than a few such organizations. Two of the most important of these merged in 1859 to form the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society (Jewish orphanages were constructed on 77th Street near 3rd Avenue and another in Brooklyn). In 1852 the “Jews’ Hospital” (renamed in 1871 Mount Sinai Hospital), which would one day be considered one of the best in the country, was established.
Luis Moises Gomez
Gomez came to New York in 1703. In 1705 he was granted an Act of Denization from Queen Anne of England. This certificate gave him rights to conduct business, own property, and live freely within the Colonies without an oath of allegiance to the Church of England. Gomez established himself as a prominent businessman and leader within the early Jewish community in New York and in 1714 he purchased 6,900 acres (28 km2) in Marlboro on the west side of the Hudson River in the then-British colony of New York. There he built a single-story fieldstone block house now called the Gomez Mill House. For some thirty years he and his sons lived there and ran a profitable fur trading post. He quarried limestone and milled timber there for the City of New York, 60 miles (97 km) south.
His house on the Hudson Highlands where several Indian trails converged served as a frontier trading post for the new colonists. Other pioneers, fleeing tyranny, and the cruelties in Europe for the promise of a new life, then settled in the Hudson Valley. His house has been continuously inhabited for more than 280 years, and it is the earliest known survivingJewish residence in the country and the oldest home in Orange County listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1727 he led the drive to finance and construct the Mill Street Synagogue in lower Manhattan, the first Synagogue of Shearith Israel, America’s oldest Jewish congregation, and in 1728 he served as its first Parnas (president (Hebrew.))
In 1685 the application of Saul Brown (originally Saul Pardo) to trade at retail was denied, as was also that of the Jews for liberty to exercise their religion publicly. That they did so privately in some definite place of worship would appear from the fact that a map of New York, dated 1695, shows the location of a Jewish synagogue on Beaver Street, also that Saul Brown was the minister, and that the congregation comprised twenty families. Five years later the site of the synagogue was so well known that in a conveyance of property the premises were referred to as a landmark. In 1710 the minister of the congregation, Abraham de Lucena, was granted exemption from civil and military service by reason of his ministerial functions, and reference is made to the enjoyment of the same privileges by his predecessors. The minutes of the Congregation Shearith Israel of New York begin in 1729, when it was located in Mill Street, and refer to records dating back as far as 1706. This congregation established on Mill Street, in 1730, on a lot purchased two years before, the first synagogue in the future United States.
It would thus appear that the religious rights of these early Jewish settlers had been secured in the beginning of the 18th century, and that they enjoyed also many political rights. An act passed by the General Assembly of New York on November 15, 1727, provided that when the oath of abjuration was to be taken by any British subject professing the Jewish religion, the words “upon the true faith of a Christian” might be omitted. Three days later an act was passed naturalizing one Daniel Nunes da Costa. A bitter political controversy of 1737 resulted in the decision by the General Assembly that Jews should not be allowed to vote for members of that body.
In 1740 Parliament passed a general act permitting foreign Jews to be naturalized in the colonies. Previous to this date, however, the New York Colonial Assembly had passed numerous special acts of naturalization, some of which were applicable to individuals only; others, more general in character, under which Jews could be naturalized without taking oath “upon the true faith of a Christian,” were also put upon the statute-book. Between this time and the Revolutionary War the Jewish community in this colony increased by slow stages, the principal immigrants coming from Spain, Portugal, and the West Indies.
During the French and Indian War, Jacob Franks was the royal agent, in association with a British syndicate, for provisioning the British forces in America; his dealings with the crown during this period exceeded £750,000 in value.
Around Wall Street
Stop 32: Trinity Church
Trinity Church and Graveyard
|Trinity Church from Wall Street|
Manhattan, New York City
|Architectural style||Gothic Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||76001252|
|Added to NRHP||December 8, 1976|
|Designated NHL||December 8, 1976,|
|Designated NYCL||August 16, 1966|
Trinity Church, at 75 Broadway in lower Manhattan, is a historic, active, well-endowed parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York. Trinity Church is near the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway, in New York City, New York.
History and architecture
In 1696, Governor Benjamin Fletcher approved the purchase of land in Lower Manhattan by the Church of England community for construction of a new church. The parish received its charter from King William III on May 6, 1697. Its land grant specified an annual rent of sixty bushels of wheat. The first rector was William Vesey (for whom nearby Vesey Street is named), a protege of Increase Mather, who served for 49 years until his death in 1746.
Stop 33: World Trade Center
World Trade Center
|World Trade Center|
The original World Trade Center of New York City in March 2001. The North Tower (left), with antenna spire, is 1 WTC. The South Tower(right) is 2 WTC. All seven buildings of the WTC complex are partially visible (see map below). The red granite-clad building left of the Twin Towers is the original 7 World Trade Center. In the background is the East River.
|Tallest in the world from 1971 to 1973[I]|
|Preceded by||Empire State Building|
|Surpassed by||Willis Tower|
|Location||New York City|
|Groundbreaking||August 25, 1966|
|Opening||April 4, 1973|
|Destroyed||September 11, 2001|
|Owner||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Design and construction|
|Engineer||Worthington, Skilling, Helle & Jackson,Leslie E. Robertson Associates|
The World Trade Center is a complex of buildings under construction in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States, replacing an earlier complex of seven buildings with the same name on the same site. The original World Trade Center featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973, and were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001, along with 7 World Trade Center. The other buildings in the complex were severely damaged by the collapse of the twin towers, and their ruins were eventually demolished. The site is being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers, a memorial to those killed in the attacks, and a transportation hub. One World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories at its completion. It will be the tallest building in the United States when complete.
At the time of their completion the “Twin Towers”, the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower), at 1,368 feet (417 m), and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower), were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2014 dollars). The complex was located in New York City’s Financial Districtand contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993 and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated act of terrorism. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower (2) collapsed, followed a half-hour later by the North Tower (1). The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,753 people. Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area (including the World Financial Center). The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months.
Over the following years, plans were created for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site planand memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan; however, substantial changes were made to the design.
The first new building at the site was the 7 World Trade Center, which opened in May 2006. The memorial section of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum opened on September 11, 2011 and the museum opened in May 2014. Construction of the One World Trade Center is nearing completion and it is expected to open in 2014; the 4 World Trade Center opened on November 13, 2013; the 3 World Trade Center is under construction and expected to open in 2016; as of November 2013, according to an agreement made with Silverstein Properties Inc., the 2 World Trade Center will not be built to its full height until sufficient leasing is established to make the building financially viable; and 5 World Trade Center will be developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, but, as of February 2014, a schedule was not confirmed.