Heritage Walk on the Lower East Side…..continued

Download PDF

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music on right hand side panel.

Lower East Side continued

This area has the highest concentration of sites of Jewish interest on Manhattan.

East Broadway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

East Broadway as seen from theManhattan Bridge.

East Broadway is a two-way east-west street in the Chinatown (紐約華埠)Two Bridges, and Lower East Side neighborhoods of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

East Broadway begins at Chatham Square (also known as Kimlau Square) and runs eastward under the Manhattan Bridge, continues pastSeward Park and the eastern end of Canal Street, and ends at Grand Street.

The western portion of the street has evolved into the neighborhood known as Little Fuzhou, or Manhattan’s Fuzhou Town (福州埠, 紐約華埠), primarily populated by Chinese immigrants (mainly Foochowese who emigrated from FuzhouFujian), while the eastern portion was traditionally home to a large number of Jews, although this section of East Broadway has been turning over to the expansion of the Fujianesepopulation and commerce in Lower Manhattan as well. One section in the eastern part of East Broadway, between Clinton Street and Pitt Street, has been unofficially referred to by residents as “Shteibel Way”, since it has been lined with up to ten small synagogues (“shteibels”) in its history.

Chatham Square and Lin Zexu Statue

Structures and places

Jewish Daily Forward Building

The Jewish Daily Forward erected a ten-story office building at 175 East Broadway, designed by architect George Boehm and completed in 1912. It was a prime location, across the street from Seward Park. The building was embellished with marble columns and panels and stained glass windows. The facade features carved bas relief portraits of Karl Marx,Friedrich Engels,[33] (who co-authored, with Marx, The Communist Manifesto) and Ferdinand Lassalle, founder of the first mass German labor party. A fourth relief portrays a person whose identity has not been clearly established, and has been identified as Wilhelm Liebknecht,[34] Karl Liebknecht,[35] or August Bebel.[36][37] In the real estate boom of the 1990s, the building was converted to condominiums.[38][39]

Seward Park

Playground at Seward Park

Seward Park, at the northeast corner of East Broadway and Straus Square, is 3.046 acres (12,330 m2) in size and is the first municipally built playground in the United States.[43][44]

Stop 65:

Shteeble Row

225-283 E Broadway

From Oscar’s book:

Stop-65-1a Stop-65-1b

Stop 66: Bialystoker Home for the Aged

228 E Broadway

Stop-65-c

 

228 E Broadway

 Stop 67: Educational Alliance

197 E Broadway

The Educational Alliance

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Educational Alliance is a leading charity that has been serving Downtown Manhattan since 1889. Founded[1] as a partnership between the Aguilar Free Library, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association (now the 92nd Street Y), and the Hebrew Institute, the main purpose was to serve as a settlement house for Eastern European Jews immigrating to New York City.

A massive fundraiser resulted in funds to build the organization’s flagship building at 197 East Broadway. In addition to basic classes and programs on how to be a good American, The Alliance offered a creative outlet via The Alliance Art School, recreational respite in the Rooftop Garden (serving 10,000 people per day in the summer of 1903), and the theater (Eddie Cantor made his stage debut there in 1905), and other escapes from cramped tenement life.

As the population of the Lower East Side changed, so did The Educational Alliance. In the middle of the last century, The Alliance shifted away from being volunteer run and introduced social service programs overseen by trained professionals. In the 1960s, The Alliance pioneered Operation Street Corner, aimed at curbing teenage delinquency. The Alliance was one of the first organizations to offer Head Start for early childhood education. Recently, The Alliance addressed the needs of the aging population of the neighborhood by helping establish one of the first naturally occurring retirement communities, for which it provides services.

Today, the flagship building remains at 197 East Broadway, and it is now complemented by twenty-eight other sites, including the 14th Street Y at 14th Street and First Avenue, residential and outpatient drug treatment facilities, counseling and afterschool programs in New York City Public Schools, older adult residential and community center facilities, and more.

http://www.edalliance.org

NY Police Community Fair

Stop 68: New York Public Library – Seward Park Branch

192 E Broadway

Stop 69: Jewish Daily Forward Building

175 E Broadway

The Jewish Daily Forward

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Forward
The forward.jpg
Publisher Samuel Norich
Editor Jane Eisner
Managing editors Dan Friedman
News editor Larry Cohler-Esses
Opinion editor Gal Beckerman
Founded April 22, 1897
Political alignment Progressive
Language English
Headquarters New York City, USA
Circulation English: 28,221 (March 2013)[1]
Official website forward.com
Yiddish Jidysz.lebt.svgJournalism

Radio Programs:

Daily news online:

Weekly newspapers:

Monthly web newspapers:

Magazines:

Hotlinebroadcasting:

The Jewish Daily Forward (YiddishפֿאָרווערטסForverts), colloquially called The Forward, is a Jewish-American national newspaperpublished in New York City. The publication began in 1897 as a Yiddish-language daily issued by dissidents from the Socialist Labor Partyof Daniel DeLeon. As a nonprofit publication loosely affiliated with the Socialist Party of AmericaForverts achieved massive circulation and considerable political influence during the first three decades of the 20th Century. The organization today publishes two newspapers, weekly in English (The Forward) and biweekly in Yiddish (Yiddish Forward) or (Forverts) and websites updated daily in both languages.

Contents

History

Origins

The first issue of Forverts appeared on April 22, 1897 in New York City.[2] The paper was founded by a group of about 50 Yiddish-speaking socialists who organized themselves approximately three months earlier as the Forward Publishing Association.[2] The paper’s name, as well as its political orientation, was borrowed from the German Social Democratic Party and its organ Vorwärts.

Abraham Cahan, patriarch of The Forward until 1946

Forverts was a successor to New York’s first Yiddish-language socialist newspaper, Di Arbeter Tsaytung (The Workman’s Paper), a weekly established in 1890 by the fledgling Jewish trade union movement centered in the United Hebrew Trades as a vehicle for bringing socialist and trade unionist ideas to non-English speaking immigrants.[3][4] This paper had been merged into a new Yiddish daily called Dos Abend Blatt (The Evening Paper) as its weekend supplement when that publication was launched in 1894 under the auspices of the Socialist Labor Party (SLP).[3] As this publication established itself, it came under increased political pressure from the de facto head of the SLP, Daniel DeLeon, who attempted to maintain a rigid ideological line with respect to its content.[5] It was this centralizing political pressure which had been the motivating factor for a new publication.

Newsboys for the Forward wait for their copies in the early morning hours in March 1913

Chief among the dissident socialists of the Forward Publishing Association were Louis Miller and Abraham Cahan. These two founding fathers of The Forward were quick to enlist in the ranks of a new rival socialist political party founded in 1897, the Social Democratic Party of America, founded by the nationally famous leader of the 1894 American Railroad Union strike, Eugene V. Debs, and Victor L. Berger, a German-speaking teacher and newspaper publisher fromMilwaukee. Both joined the SDP in July 1897.[6]

Despite this political similarity, Miller and Cahan differed as to the political orientation of the paper and Cahan left after just 4 months to join the staff of The Commercial Advertiser, a well-established Republican newspaper also based in New York City.[7]

For the next four years Cahan remained outside of The Forward office, learning the newspaper trade in a financially successful setting. He only returned, he later recalled in his memoirs, upon the promise of “absolute full power” over the editorial desk.[8]

The circulation of the paper grew quickly, paralleling the rapid growth of the Yiddish speaking population of the United States. By 1912 its circulation was 120,000,[9] and by the late 1920s/early 1930s, The Forward was a leading U.S. metropolitan daily with considerable influence and a nationwide circulation of more than 275,000[9][10] though this had dropped to 170,000 by 1939 as a result of changes in U.S. immigration policy that restricted the immigration of Jews to a trickle.[9]

Early on, The Forward defended trade unionism and moderate, democratic socialism. The paper was a significant participant in the activities of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ UnionBenjamin Schlesinger, a former president of the ILGWU, became the General Manager of the paper in 1923, then returned to the Presidency of the union in 1928. The paper was also an early supporter of David Dubinsky, Schlesinger’s eventual successor.

This November 1, 1936, magazine section of The Forward, illustrates its evolution from a Socialist publication to a Social Democratic supporter ofFranklin D. Roosevelt‘s “New Deal”

The most well-known writer in the Yiddish Forward was Isaac Bashevis Singer, who received the Nobel Prize in literature although other well known Socialist literary and political figures, such as Leon Trotsky and Morris Winchevsky have also written for it.

Modern times

By 1962 circulation was down to 56,126 daily and 59,636 Sunday,[11] and by 1983 the newspaper was published only once a week, with an English supplement.[10] In 1990 the English supplement became an independent weekly which by 2000 had a circulation of 26,183, while the Yiddish weekly had a circulation of 7,000 and falling.[12]

As the influence of the Socialist Party in both American politics and in the Jewish community waned, the paper joined the American liberal mainstream though it maintained a social democratic orientation. The English version has some standing in the Jewish community as an outlet of liberal policy analysis.

The Yiddish edition has recently enjoyed a modest increase in circulation as courses in the language have become more popular among university students; circulation has leveled out at about 5,500. The current editor of the Yiddish Forward is Boris Sandler, who is also one of the most significant contemporary secular writers in Yiddish.

For a period in the 1990s, conservatives came to the fore of the English edition of the paper, but the break from tradition didn’t last. A number of conservatives dismissed from The Forward later helped to found the modern New York Sun.

As of 2013, The Forward is published as a newspaper in separate English weekly and Yiddish biweekly editions, and online daily. Each is effectively an independent publication with its own contents. Jane Eisner became the first female Editor-in-Chief of the English Forward in June 2008.[13] The Senior Columnist is J.J. Goldberg, who has served in that role since 2008.[14] The paper maintains a left of center editorial stance.[13]

For a few years, there was also a Russian edition. The website of the Forward describes its formation: “In the fall of 1995 a Russian-language edition of the Forward was launched, under the editorship of Vladimir “Velvl” Yedidowich. The decision to launch a Russian Forward in the crowded market of Russian-language journalism in New York followed approaches to the Forward Association by a number of intellectual leaders in the fast-growing émigré community who expressed an interest in adding a voice that was strongly Jewish, yet with a secular, social-democratic orientation and an appreciation for the cultural dimension of Jewish life.”

The Russian edition was sold to RAJI (Russian American Jews for Israel) in 2004, although initially it kept the name.[15] In contrast to its English counterpart, the Russian edition and its readership were more sympathetic to right-wing voices. In March 2007, it was renamed theForum.

Around the same time in 2004, the Forward Association also sold off its interest in WEVD to The Walt Disney Company‘s sports division, ESPN.

Jewish Daily Forward Building

At the peak of its popularity, the Forward erected a ten-story office building at 175 East Broadway on the Lower East Side, designed by architect George Boehm and completed in 1912. It was a prime location, across the street from Seward Park. The building was embellished with marble columns and panels and stained glass windows. The facade features carved bas relief portraits of Karl MarxFriedrich Engels,[16] (who co-authored, with Marx, The Communist Manifesto) and Ferdinand Lassalle, founder of the first mass German labor party. A fourth relief portrays a person whose identity has not been clearly established, and has been identified as Wilhelm Liebknecht,[17] Karl Liebknecht,[18] or August Bebel.[19][20] In the real estate boom of the 1990s, the building was converted to condominiums.[9][21]

Forward 50

The “Forward 50” is a list of fifty Jewish-Americans “who have made a significant impact on the Jewish story in the past year,” published annually as an editorial opinion of The Forwardnewspaper since 1994.[22] The list was the initiative of Seth Lipsky, founding editor of the English Forward.[23]

According to the newspaper’s website, this is not a scientific study, but rather the opinion of staff members, assisted by nominations from readers. The Forward does not endorse, or support any of the individuals mentioned in the listing. The rankings are divided into different categories (which may vary from year to year): Top Picks, Politics, Activism, Religion, Community, Culture, Philanthropy, Scandals, Sports and, new in 2010, Food.[22]

The list also includes those Jews whose impact in the past year has been dramatic and damaging.[23]

See also

Stop 70: Seward Park

E Broadway, Canal & Essex Streets

Seward Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Seward Park
Seward Park, NYC (WTM sheila 0017).jpg

Playground at Seward Park
Location Bounded by Cooperative Village,East Broadway, and Essex Street,New YorkNY 10002
Nearest city New York City
Coordinates 40°42′53″N 73°59′22″WCoordinates40°42′53″N 73°59′22″W
Area 3.046 acres (12,330 m2)
Created 1897
Designer The Outdoor Recreation League
Etymology Named after William Henry Seward
Operated by NYC Parks
Open 1903
Status Open
Website NYC Parks website

The Seward Park Branch of the New York Public Library

Seward Park is a public park and playground in the Lower East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan, north of East Broadway, east of Essex Street. It is 3.046 acres (12,330 m2) in size and is the first municipally built playground in the United States.[1][2]

History

The park is named for William Henry Seward, a United States Senator from New York who served from 1849–1861 and later went on to be Secretary of State in the Lincoln administration. The park was built on a condemned piece of property purchased in 1897, former site of the Ludlow Street Jail. New York City lacked the funds to do anything with it, so The Outdoor Recreation League (ORL), a playground and recreation advocacy group that built playgrounds in the undeveloped parks using temporary facilities and equipment, built the park as the first permanent, municipally built playground in the United States.[3]

Opened on October 17, 1903, it was built with cinder surfacing, fences, a recreation pavilion, and children’s play and gymnastic equipment. A large running track encircled the play area and children’s garden. The park became a model for future playground architecture.

The Seward Park Branch of the New York Public Library was built in the southeastern part of the park.

In the 1930s and 1940s, the Park was reconstructed. A piece of land was returned to the City.[4] The Schiff Fountain, donated by Jacob H. Schiff, was moved from a nearby park and placed in Seward Park.[5]

Once again, in 1999, Seward received a much needed renovation. Some of the original 1903 plans were restored.

Stop 71: Garden Cafeteria (former)

165 E Broadway

Meeting place for Yiddish writers, poets and actors form the 1920s through the 60s.

Stop 72: Nathan Straus Square

E Broadway, SE corner Essex Street

Straus Square

Named in honour of:

Nathan Straus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nathan Straus

Nathan Straus (January 31, 1848 – January 11, 1931) was an American merchant and philanthropist who co-owned two of New York City’s biggest department stores – R.H. Macy & Company and Abraham & Straus – before giving away most of his fortune to various projects in Ottoman Palestine.

Life

Nathan Straus was born in OtterbergGermany, to a Jewish family, the third child of Lazarus Straus (1809–1898) and his wife Sara (1823–1876). His siblings were Hermine Straus Kohns (1846–1922), Isidor Straus (1845–1912) and Oscar Solomon Straus (1850–1926). The family moved to the U.S. state of Georgia in 1854. After the American Civil War the family moved to New York City where his father formed L. Straus & Sons, a crockery and glassware firm.

On April 28, 1875, Straus married Lina Gutherz (1854–1930) with whom he had six children, among them State Senator Nathan Straus, Jr.; and Sissie Straus who was married to Chief Judge Irving Lehman (1876–1945).

Macy’s and Abraham & Straus

Straus and his brothers sold crockery to R.H. Macy & Company department store. The brothers became partners in Macy’s in 1888 and co-owners in 1896.

In 1893, he and Isidor bought out Joseph Wechsler from the Abraham and Wechsler dry goods store in Brooklyn, New York, which they renamed Abraham & Straus.[1]

Public service and philanthropy

In the late 1880s, Straus began a period of philanthropy and public service in New York City. He served as New York City Park Commissioner from 1889–1893, president of the New York City Board of Health, 1898,[2] and in 1894 he was selected by Tammany Hall to run for Mayor on the Democratic ticket, but withdrew from the race when his friends in society threatened to shun him if he did.[3]

In 1892, he and his wife privately funded the Nathan Straus Pasteurized Milk Laboratory to provide pasteurized milk to children to combat infant mortality and tuberculosis. In his battles with the disease he opened the Tuberculosis Preventorium for Children at Lakewood Township, New Jersey (later it was moved to Farmingdale, New Jersey in 1909. Their book,Disease in Milk: The Remedy Pasteurization : the Life Work of Nathan Straus records that unclean, unpasteurized milk fed to infants was the chief cause of tuberculosis, typhoid, scarlet fever, diphtheria, murno gladst and other diseases that were the main cause of, e.g. a 25% infant mortality rate in the US in 1890, 15% in 1903 (but 7% in New York in 1900, where pasteurized milk had already become the norm) (it is now below 1% in the US). Straus is credited as the leading proponent of the pasteurization movement that eliminated the hundreds of thousands of deaths per year then due to disease-bearing milk.

During the economic panic of 1893 Straus used his milk stations to sell coal at the very low price of 5 cents for 25 pounds to those who could pay. Those who could not received coal for free. He also opened lodging houses for 64,000 persons, who could get a bed and breakfast for 5 cents, and he funded 50,000 meals for one cent each. He also gave away thousands of turkeys anonymously. At Abraham & Straus, he noticed that two of his employees were starving themselves to save their wages to feed their families, so he established what may have been the first subsidized company cafeteria.

In 1898, during the Spanish-American War, Straus donated an ice plant to SantiagoCuba. He was appointed by U.S. President William Taft sole United States delegate to the International Congress for Protection of Infants, Berlin, 1911, also delegate to the Tuberculosis Congress, Rome, Italy, 1912.[4]

Straus retired in 1914 to devote his time to charity. During winter of 1914-15 served for the unemployed 1,135,731 penny meals from his milk depots in New York City.[4] In 1916, as American entry into World War I loomed, he sold his yacht Sisilina to the Coast Guard and used the proceeds to feed war orphans. Later, he fed returning American servicemen atBattery Park.

Straus donated money to the New York Public Library, specifically targeting young people. The Young People’s Collection at the Donnell Library Center is named for him. He also helped the city’s poorer inhabitants by building a recreational pier, the first of many on the city’s waterfront.

A hall in Nathan Straus Health Center in the late 1920s

Israel

In 1912, a trip to Palestine was to affect Straus profoundly. On the trip he became fascinated with the area. His brother Isidor and Isidor’s wife headed back to New York aboard the Titanic and perished when it sank. Feeling he had been spared by divine intervention, he devoted two-thirds of his fortune to helping Palestine. He established a domestic science school for girls in 1912, a health bureau to fight malaria and trachoma, and a free public kitchen. He opened a Pasteur Institute, child-health welfare stations, and then funded the Nathan and Lina Straus Health Centers in Jerusalem (now part of Hadassah Medical Center) and Tel Aviv.

The modern Israeli city of Netanya, founded in 1927, was named in his honor, and Rehov Straus in Jerusalem, which was Chancellor Avenue during the British Mandate, was also named for him.

Nathan Straus died on January 11, 1931, in New York City. Twenty years before, at a dinner in his honor, he had given what could have been his own eulogy.

I often think of the old saying, “The world is my country, to do good is my religion. … This has often been an inspiration to me. I might say, “Humanity is my kin, to save babies is my religion.” It is a religion I hope will have thousands of followers.

Anne Frank connection

Nathan’s son (Nathan Jr., 1889–1961) attended Princeton University and arrived in Heidelberg University in 1908 where he met a young art history scholar named Otto Frank. Otto accepted a job in Macy’s with Nathan Straus, Jr., where he fell in love with New York and its brashness. But in 1909, Otto’s father died and he returned to Germany where he fought inWorld War I and lived to see the time when he and his family would have to leave Germany because of anti-Semitism. One of Otto’s daughters was Anne Frank.[citation needed]

 Shop 73: Mesifta Tifereth Jerusalem

145 E Broadway

Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40°42.83′0″N 73°59.47′0″W

Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem

Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem (Hebrewמתיבתא תפארת ירושלים‎, Mesivta Tiferet Yerushalayim) is one of the oldest existent yeshivot in New York City, and is renowned for being the institution led by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein.[1]

Location

The yeshiva has two campuses. The older campus at 145 East Broadway offers a full range of classes, from pre kindergarten through post high school. The dean, Rabbi Dovid Feinstein, is Rabbi Moshe Feinstein‘s eldest son. This campus has no dormitory. The second campus, also known as the Yeshiva of Staten Island is led by Rabbi Reuven Feinstein, and contains high school and post high school facilities. It contains a dormitory, located at 1870 Drumgoole Road East, in Staten Island, NY.

History

Founded in 1907 at 87 Eldridge Street, the Talmud Torah Tifereth Jerusalem grew quickly. First moving to 115 Hester Street, then 240 Madison, then 13 Montgomery Street, the yeshiva finally settled in two adjacent lots on 145 and 147 East Broadway. The current structure was built in 1912. A high school was established in 1929.

Stop 74: Jewish Tenements

137-139 E Broadway

The Herter Brothers designed mansions as well as several tenement buildings for the mass influx of Jewish migrants in the late 1880s. They designed standard five story walk-ups, but initialled their buildings with tera cotta Star of David motifs above the windows.

 

 Stop 75: Canal Street Theatre

31 Canal Street

Once a silent movie palace, built in the 1920s

Canal Street 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The former Loew’s Canal Street Theatre at 31 Canal Street, a New York City Landmark

Canal Street is a major east-west street in Lower ManhattanNew York City, running from East Broadway between Essexand Jefferson Streets in the east, to West Street between Watts and Spring Streets in the west. It runs through the neighborhood of Chinatown, and forms the southern boundaries of SoHo and Little Italy as well as the northern boundary of Tribeca. The street acts as a major connector between Jersey City, New Jersey, via the Holland Tunnel (I-78), andBrooklyn, New York City, via the Manhattan Bridge. It is a two-way street for most of its length – from West Street to the Manhattan Bridge – with two unidirectional stretches between Forsyth Street and the Manhattan Bridge.

 Shop 76: Kletzker Brotherly Aid Association (former)

5 Ludlow Street

Organised by a group of Jews from Kletzk in 1892

Now a Chinese funeral parlour

Stop 77: Jarmulowsky’s Bank Building

Canal & Orchid Streets

 

Jarmulowsky Bank Building

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jarmulowsky Bank Building View.JPG

The Jarmulowsky Bank Building is a 12-story building formerly housing the Jarmulowsky Bank on the Lower East Side of ManhattanNew York City. Located at Canal Street and Orchard Street, the Jarmulowsky Bank Building was built by architects Rouse & Goldstone[1] in 1912, inBeaux-Arts style.[2] The building is faced with limestone at its lower section and architectural terracotta on its higher section.

Sender Jarmulowsky established his bank in 1873. When World War I broke out two years after the bank building was completed, there was a run on the bank, as German investors withdrew funds to send to relatives abroad, and the bank failed.[3]

Until 1990, the building featured a massive tempietto rising 50 feet to a dome ringed by eagles. The building was renovated in 1990 by Sing May Realty and the tempietto destroyed. The building is now used for commercial purposes.

In 2013 the building was slated for conversion into a boutique, luxury hotel.

Stop 78: Home of Ira Gershwin

60 Eldridge Street

Ira Gershwin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ira Gershwin
Ira gershwin.jpg
Background information
Birth name Israel Gershowitz
Also known as Israel Gershvin
Arthur Francis
Born December 6, 1896
New York City, New York, U.S.
Died August 17, 1983 (aged 86)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Genres Popular
Classical
Occupations Lyricist
Years active 1910s–1980s

Ira Gershwin (December 6, 1896 – August 17, 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composerGeorge Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century.[1]

With George he wrote more than a dozen Broadway shows, featuring songs such as “I Got Rhythm“, “Embraceable You“, “The Man I Love” and “Someone to Watch Over Me“. He was also responsible, along with DuBose Heyward, for the libretto to George’s opera Porgy and Bess.

The success the brothers had with their collaborative works has often overshadowed the creative role that Ira played. However, his mastery of songwriting continued after the early death of George. He wrote additional hit songs with composers Jerome Kern (“Long Ago (and Far Away)“), Kurt Weill and Harold Arlen.

His critically acclaimed book Lyrics on Several Occasions of 1959, an amalgam of autobiography and annotated anthology, is an important source for studying the art of the lyricist in the golden age of American popular song.[2]

Biography

Gershwin was born Israel Gershowitz in New York City to Morris (Moishe) and Rose Gershovitz who changed the family name to Gershvin well before their children rose to fame (it was not spelled “Gershwin” until later). Shy in his youth, he spent much of his time at home reading, but from grammar school through college he played a prominent part in several school newspapers and magazines. He graduated from Townsend Harris High School in 1914, where he met Yip Harburg, with whom he enjoyed a lifelong friendship, and a love of Gilbert and Sullivan. He attended the City College of New York but dropped out.[3][4]

The childhood home of Ira and George Gershwin was in the center of the Yiddish Theater District, on the second floor at 91 Second Avenue, between East 5th Street and East 6th Street. They frequented the local Yiddish theaters.[5][6][7]

While his younger brother began composing and “plugging” in Tin Pan Alley from the age of eighteen, Ira worked as a cashier in his father’s Turkish baths.[8] It was not until 1921 that Ira became involved in the music business. Alex Aarons signed Ira to write the songs for his next show, Two Little Girls in Blue (written under the pseudonym “Arthur Francis”), ultimately produced by Abraham Erlanger, along with co-composers Vincent Youmans and Paul Lannin. Gershwin’s lyrics were well received, and allowed him to successfully enter the show-business world with just one show.[4] Later the same year the Gershwins collaborated for the first time on a score, for A Dangerous Maid, which played in Atlantic City and on tour.[9]

It was not until 1924 that Ira and George Gershwin teamed up to write the music for their first Broadway hit Lady, Be Good. Once the brothers joined forces, their combined talents became one of the most influential forces in the history of American Musical Theatre. “When the Gershwins teamed up to write songs for Lady, Be Good, the American musical found its native idiom.”[10] Together, they wrote the music for more than twelve shows and four films. Some of their more famous works include “The Man I Love“, “Fascinating Rhythm“, “Someone to Watch Over Me“, “I Got Rhythm” and “They Can’t Take That Away from Me“.[2] Their partnership continued until George’s sudden death from a brain tumor in 1937. Following his brother’s death, Ira waited nearly three years before writing again.

After this temporary retirement, he teamed up with such accomplished composers as Jerome Kern (Cover Girl); Kurt Weill (Where Do We Go from Here? and Lady in the Dark); andHarold Arlen (Life Begins at 8:40A Star Is Born).[4] Over the next fourteen years, Gershwin continued to write the lyrics for many film scores and a few Broadway shows. But the failure of Park Avenue in 1946, a “smart” show about divorce, co-written with composer Arthur Schwartz, was his farewell to Broadway.[11] As he wrote at the time, “Am reading a couple of stories for possible musicalization (if there is such a word) but I hope I don’t like them as I think I deserve a long rest.”[12] In 1947, he took eleven songs George had written but never used, provided them with new lyrics, and incorporated them into the Betty Grable film The Shocking Miss Pilgrim and he later wrote comic lyrics for Billy Wilder‘s movie Kiss Me, Stupid(although most critics believe his final major work was for the 1954 Judy Garland film A Star Is Born).[4]

American singer, pianist and musical historian Michael Feinstein worked for Gershwin in the lyricist’s latter years, helping him with his archive. Several lost musical treasures were unearthed during this period, and Feinstein performed some of the material.[13] Feinstein’s book The Gershwins and Me: A Personal History in Twelve Songs about working for Ira, and George and Ira’s music was published in 2012.[14]

According to a 1999 story in Vanity Fair, Ira Gershwin’s love for loud music was as great as his wife’s loathing of it. When Debby Boone—daughter-in-law of his neighbor Rosemary Clooney—returned from Japan with one of the first Sony Walkmans (utilizing cassette tape), Clooney gave it to Michael Feinstein to give to Ira, “so he could crank it in his ears, you know. And he said, ‘This is absolutely wonderful!’ And he called his broker and bought Sony stock!”[15]

Awards and honors

Three of Gershwin’s songs (“They Can’t Take That Away From Me” (1937), “Long Ago (And Far Away)” (1944) and “The Man That Got Away” (1954)) were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song, though none won.[16]

Gershwin, along with George S Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind, was a recipient of the 1932 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for Of Thee I Sing.[17]

The George and Ira Gershwin Lifetime Musical Achievement Award was established in 1988 by UCLA to honor the brothers for their contribution to music and for their gift to UCLA of the fight song “Strike Up the Band for UCLA”.

Stop 79: Former Synagogue

87 Eldridge

Housed two separate synagogues in the 1920s- Congregation Tifereth Jeshurun and Congregation Chevrah Anshei Grodno v’ Anshei Staputkin

Stop 80: Ridley’s Department Store Site

SE corner Grand and Allen Streets

Photo from the New York Times

See link for article on Ridley’s

Heritage Walk on the Lower East Side

Download PDF

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Lower East Side

This area has the highest concentration of sites of Jewish interest on Manhattan.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lower east side)
Lower East Side Historic District
LowerEastSideTenements.JPG
Tenement buildings on the Lower East Side
Lower Manhattan Map LES.GIF
Neighborhood location in Lower Manhattan(blue)
Location Roughly bounded by East Houston, Essex, Canal, Eldridge, South and Grand Streets, and the Bowery and East Broadway Manhattan,New York (original)
Roughly along Division, Rutgers, Madison, Henry and Grand Streets (increase)
Coordinates40°43′2″N 73°59′23″W
Architectural style Greek RevivalItalianate

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough ofManhattan. It is roughly bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the East River to the east, and Canal Street to the south. The western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to approximately Essex Street.

It was traditionally an immigrant, working-class neighborhood. It has undergone rapid gentrification starting in the mid-2000s, prompting The National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America’s Most Endangered Places.[2][3] It has become a home to upscale boutiques and trendy dining establishments along Clinton Street’s restaurant row

Boundaries

The corner of Orchard and Rivington Streets, Lower East Side (2005)

Boundaries

The Lower East Side is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown (which extends north to roughly Grand Street), in the west by NoLIta and in the north by East Village.[4][5]

Politically it is located in New York’s 8th12th, and 14th congressional districts, theNew York State Assembly‘s 64th district, the New York State Senate‘s 26th district, and New York City Council‘s 1st and 2nd district.

Historical boundaries

Originally, the “Lower East Side” referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to14th Street, and roughly bounded on the west by Broadway. It included areas known today as East VillageAlphabet CityChinatown,BoweryLittle Italy, and NoLIta.

The exact western and southern boundaries of the neighborhood are a matter of perspective – New York natives and long-time neighborhood residents, especially the Puerto Ricanand black community, and the Jewish community, don’t have East Village in their vocabulary, and refer to it as the Lower East Side. The so-called debate about naming conventions typically only applies to the post-gentrification crowd. Most recent arrivals to the area, including new visitors and residents prefer to call the area north of Houston Street the East Village—a name not coined until around 1960.[citation needed]

Although the term today refers to the area bounded to the north by East Houston Street, parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of “Lower East Side.” Avenue C is known directly as “Loisaida” and is home to the Loisaida Festival every summer.[6]

History

Delancey farm

James Delancey‘s pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city (Bowery) survives in the names Delancey Street and Orchard Street. On the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm[7] is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street.[8] In response to the pressures of a growing city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the “West Farm”[9] in the 1760s. A spacious projected Delancey Square—intended to cover the area within today’s Eldridge, Essex, Hester and Broome Streets—was eliminated when the loyalist Delancey family’s property was confiscated after the American Revolution. The city Commissioners of Forfeiture eliminated the aristocratic planned square for a grid, effacing Delancey’s vision of a New York laid out like the West End of London, and established the resolutely democratic nature of the neighborhood forever.

Character

As an immigrant neighborhood

Katz’s Deli, symbol of the neighborhood’s Jewish history, is dwarfed by modern development

One of the oldest neighborhoods of the city, the Lower East Side has long been a lower-class worker neighborhood and often a poor and ethnically diverse section of New York. As well as IrishItaliansPolesUkrainians, and other ethnic groups, it once had a sizeableGerman population and was known as Little Germany (Kleindeutschland). Today it is a predominantly Puerto Rican and Dominicancommunity, and in the process of gentrification (as documented by the portraits of its residents in the Clinton+Rivington chapter of The Corners Project.)[18]

The Lower East Side is perhaps best known as having once been a center of Jewish culture. In her 2000 book Lower East Side memories: A Jewish place in AmericaHasia Diner explains that the Lower East Side is especially remembered as a place of Jewish beginnings in contemporary, impoverished Ashkenazi American Jewish culture.[19] Vestiges of the area’s Jewish heritage exist in shops on Hester Street and Essex Street, and on Grand Street near Allen. There is still an Orthodox Jewish community with yeshivaday schools and a mikvah. A few Judaica shops can be found along Essex Street and a few Jewish scribes and variety stores. Some kosher delis and bakeries as well as a few “kosher style” delis, including the famous Katz’s Deli, are located in the neighborhood. Downtown Second Avenue on the Lower East Side was the home to many Yiddish theatre productions in the Yiddish Theater Districtduring the early part of the 20th century, and Second Avenue came to be known as ‘Yiddish Broadway’, though most of the theaters are gone. Songwriter Irving Berlin, actor John Garfield, and singer Eddie Cantor grew up here. More recently, it has been settled by immigrants, primarily from Latin America.

In what is now the East Village, the earlier population of Poles and Ukrainians has been largely supplanted with newer immigrants, and the arrival of large numbers of Japanesepeople over the last fifteen years or so has led to the proliferation of Japanese restaurants and specialty food markets. There is also a notable population of Bangladeshis and other immigrants from Muslim countries, many of whom are congregants of the small Madina Masjid (Mosque), located on First Avenue and 11th Street.

The neighborhood also presents many historic synagogues, such as the Bialystoker Synagogue,[20] Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, the Eldridge Street Synagogue,[21] Kehila Kedosha Janina (the only Greek synagogue in the Western Hemisphere),[22] the Angel Orensanz Center (the fourth oldest synagogue building in the United States), and various smaller synagogues along East Broadway. Another landmark, the First Roumanian-American congregation (the Rivington Street synagogue) partially collapsed in 2006, and was subsequently demolished. In addition, there is a major Hare Krishna temple and several Buddhist houses of worship.

Incoming Chinese people have also made their mark on the Lower East Side in recent decades. The part of the neighborhood south of Delancey Street and west of Allen Streethas in large measure become part of Chinatown, and Grand Street is one of the major business and shopping streets of Chinatown. Also contained within the neighborhood are strips of lighting and restaurant supply shops on the Bowery.

As a Jewish neighborhood

While the Lower East Side has seen a series of immigrant communities pass through, American Jews relate to the neighborhood in a particularly strong manner, much asChinatown in San Francisco holds a special place in the imagination of Chinese Americans, and Astoria in the hearts of Greek Americans. In the late twentieth century, the strong pull of the Lower East Side on the imagination of American Jews led to the preservation of a number of buildings associated with the Jewish immigrant community.[23][24][25]

Landmarks of the Jewish neighborhood[edit]

Meseritz Synagogue

Synagogues[edit]

Stop 48:Oldest Jewish Cemetery

45-57 James St

First Cemetery

Stop 49: Site of Rabbi Isaac Elchanan’s Theological Seminary

47 East Broadway

Establishe in 1886

Named after Rabbi Isaac Elchanan spektor, a prominent scholar from Kovno.

Forerunner of The Yeshiva University

 

The area around the address.

 Stop 50: Saint Barbara Greek Orthodox Church

27 Forsyth Street

Originally a synagogue, Congregation Mishkan Israel Suwalki

Stop 51: Eldridge Street Synagogue

14 Eldridge Street

Built in 1886

Congregation Kahal Adas Jesurun Anshei Lubz

Yossele Rosenblatt was once the chazan at this shul.

A young Eddie Cantor sang in the choir.

Museum and active synagogue

EldridgeEldridge 1  Lower East Side Shuls

 

 

Outside

 

Inside

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 Stop 52: Home of Eddie Cantor

19 Eldridge Street opposite the synagogue.

He took acting and voice lessons at the Educational Alliance in East Broadway.

Stop 53: Manhattan Railway Company Electrical Substation (Former)

100 Division Street NW corner Allen Street

This facility served the Second Avenue El – elevated train which ran from Brooklyn Bridge to the Bronx.

Stop 54: Pike Street Shul (Former)

15 Pike Street

Congregation Sons of Israel Kalvarier bulit 1903. One of the great synagogues in the Lower East Side

Stop 55: Chèvre Mishkan Anshe Zetel

135 Henry Street

A mini synagogue – shteeble

Stop 56: Saint Teresa’s RC Church

16-18 Rutgers Street

First Presbyterian Church in NY in 1841. In 1863 as the area became Irish, it was bought by the Roman Catholic Church.

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 Stop 57: Former Synagogue

156 Henry Street

Now a Buddist Association

DSC_1291

 

Stop 58: Site of Yeshiva Rabbi Jacob Joseph

203 Henry Street

Rabbi Jacob Joseph was appointed “Chief Rabbi of the City of New York” in 1899. This was met with resistance and only lasted several months.

Stop 59: Former Synagogue

209 Madison Street

Previuosly Congregation Etz Chaim Anshe Volozin, closed in 1989

209 Madison St

Stop 60: Henry Street Settlement

263-267 Henry Street

Screen Shot 2014-08-27 at 9.28.57 am

 

DSC_1314

Henry Street Settlement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henry Street Settlement
and Neighborhood Playhouse
Henry Street Settlement 263-267 Henry Street.jpg
(2011)
Location 263-267 Henry St., and
466 Grand Street
ManhattanNew York City
Coordinates 40°42′50″N 73°59′7″WCoordinates40°42′50″N 73°59′7″W
Area 1 acre (0.40 ha)
Built 1827[2]
Architect 267: Buchman & Fox
Architectural style FederalGreek RevivalColonial Revival

The Henry Street Settlement is a not-for-profit social service agency in the Lower East Side neighborhood of ManhattanNew York City that provides social services, arts programs and health care services to New Yorkers of all ages. It was founded in 1893 by Progressive reformer and nurse Lillian Wald.

The Settlement serves about 50,000 people each year. Clients include low-income individuals and families, survivors of domestic violence, youngsters ages 2 through 21, individuals with mental and physical health challenges, senior citizens, and arts and culture enthusiasts who attend performances, classes and exhibitions at Henry Street’s Abrons Arts Center.

The Settlement’s administrative offices are still located in its original (c. 1832) federal row houses at 263, 265 and 267 Henry Street in Manhattan. Services are offered at 17 program sites throughout the area, many of them located in buildings operated by the New York City Housing Authority.

The Settlement’s buildings at 263, 265 and 267 Henry Street were designated New York City landmarks in 1966,[4] and these buildings, along with the Neighborhood Playhouse building at 466 Grand Street, were collectively designated a National Historic Landmark in 1989.[3][5][6]

History

In 1892, Lillian Wald, a 25-year-old nurse then enrolled in the Women’s Medical College, volunteered to teach a class on home health care for immigrant women at the Louis Down-Town Sabbath and Daily School on the Lower East Side. One day, she was approached by a young girl who kept repeating “mommy … baby … blood”. Wald gathered some sheets from her bed-making lesson and followed the child to her home, a cramped two-room tenement apartment. Inside, she found the child’s mother who had recently given birth and in need of health care. The doctor tending to her had left because she could not afford to pay him.[7] This was Wald’s first experience with poverty; she called the episode her “baptism by fire” and dedicated herself to bringing nursing care, and eventually education and access to the arts, to the immigrant poor on Manhattan’s Lower East Side. The next year she founded the Nurses’ Settlement, which later changed its name to the Henry Street Settlement.[4]

Two years later, in 1895, Jacob Schiff, a banker and philanthropist purchased the Federal style townhouse at 265 Henry Street for the new organization to use. The building was expanded upwards with an additional story to provide more space, and Schiff donated the building to the Settlement in 1903.[4] The year before, the Settlement had added new facilities, including a gymnasium at 299, 301 and 303 Henry Street.[8]

A street-level view of 267 Henry Street

The organization expanded again in 1906, when Morris Loeb bought the building at 267 Henry Street for it to use. This Greek Revival townhouse was purchased from the Hebrew Technical School for Girls, which had previously employed the architectural firm of Buchman & Fox in 1900 to redo the facade in Colonial Revival style.[4]

In 1915, the Neighborhood Playhouse, one of the first “Little Theatres”, was created by the sisters Alice and Irene Lewisohn at the corner of Grand and Pitt Streets, offering classical drama for the people of the area. The theatre still operates, as the Harry De Jur Playhouse.[8] In 1927 the Henry Street Music School began operation.[8]

The Settlement began leasing the townhouse at 263 Henry Street, on the other side of its original building, in 1938, using it for classrooms and residences, and in 1949 it purchased the building, which was originally built in the Federal style but had been extensively altered.[4]This combining of the three townhouse – 263, 265 and 267 – had the consequence of preserving part of the 1820s streetscape amid what later became a crowded tenement district. The block of Henry Street between Montgomery Street and Grand Street, which also includes St. Augustine’s Church, gives an impression of uptown Manhattan as it would have looked in the 1820s and 1830s. #263 Henry Street was restored in 1989 and #265 in 1992.[4]

Today, Henry Street is known for its pioneering efforts in social service and health care delivery. Its innovations included the establishment of one of New York City’s first off-street playgrounds (1902); funding the first public school nurse (1902); starting the Visiting Nurse Service, which became independent as the Visiting Nurse Service of New York in 1944; opening one of the nation’s first mental health clinics (1946), one of the first transitional housing facilities for the homeless (1972), the first Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) in public housing (1994) and the city’s first Safe Haven shelter for homeless women (2007).

Lillian Wald

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lillian Wald
Lillian Wald - William Valentine Schevill.jpg

Portrait of Lillian Wald by William Valentine Schevill, National Portrait Gallery inWashington, D.C.
Born March 10, 1867
Cincinnati, Ohio
Died September 1, 1940 (aged 73)
Westport, Connecticut
Alma mater New York Hospital Training School for Nurses
Occupation Nurse, humanitarian, activist
Known for Founding the Henry Street Settlement; nursing pioneer, advocacy for the poor

Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author. She was known for contributions to human rights and was the founder of American community nursing.[1] She founded the Henry Street Settlement and was an early advocate for nursing in schools.

After growing up in Ohio and New York, Wald became a nurse. She briefly attended medical school and began to teach community health classes. After founding the Henry Street Settlement, she became an activist for the rights of women and minorities. She campaigned for suffrage and was a supporter of racial integration. She was involved in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Wald died in 1940 at the age of 73.

Early life and education

Wald was born into a German-Jewish middle-class family in Cincinnati, Ohio; her father was an optical dealer. In 1878, she moved with her family to Rochester, New York. She attended Miss Cruttenden’s English-French Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies. She applied to Vassar College at the age of 16, but the school thought her too young. In 1889, she attended New York Hospital’s School of Nursing. She graduated from the New York Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1891, then took courses at the Woman’s Medical College.[2]

A young Lillian Wald in nurse uniform

Stop 61: Saint Augustine’s Chapel

290 Henry Street

Built between 1827 and 1829 in the Federal style. The fieldstone design is similar to Bialystoker Synagogue, originally a Methodist Church (Stop 86)

Screen Shot 2014-08-27 at 11.32.54 am

 

Stop 62: East Side Torah Center

313 Henry Street

Established in 1890

Stop 63: East Side Mikveh – Ritualarium

313 East Broadway

Built in 1904 as the Arnold Toynbee Hall, which served as a settlement house. Later the Young Men’s Benevolent Association. Also as a mikveh.

Stop 64: Amalgamated Dwellings

Grand, Broome, Willett & Lewis Streets

Also known as Sidney Hillman Houses. Built in 1930 under the auspices of the  Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

Cooperative Village

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

View of Grand Street showing 26 years of cooperative development: Amalgamated Dwellings (1930) in the foreground with two of the Hillman Housing buildings (1947-50) behind it. One of the East River Housing towers (1953-56) in the background.

The closed courtyard of Amalgamated Dwellings

Hillman Housing buildings on Grand Street as seen from the East River towers. Amalgamated Dwellings is seen between the second and the third tower

One of the towers of Seward Park Housing

A view southwest through the Seward Park towers

Towers of the East River Housing Corporation

Cooperative Village is a community of housing cooperatives on the Lower East Side of ManhattanNew York City. The cooperatives are centered on Grand Street in an area south of the entrance ramp to the Williamsburg Bridge and west of FDR Drive. Combined, the four cooperatives have 4,500 apartments in twelve buildings.

The cooperatives were sponsored, organized and built by trade unions, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, as well as the United Housing Foundation, a development organization set up by the unions in 1951.

The cooperatives followed strict Rochdale Principles, with one vote per member, irrespective of the nominal value of his shares. Resale of shares was restricted; members moving out of the apartments had to sell their shares back to the cooperative at the buying price, minus a flip tax. After the original financing structures governing the apartments were phased out, beginning in 1986, the shareholders of each cooperative decided in separate votes in 1997 and 2000, to abandon the limited equity rules and free the resale of shares, in some cases increasing the value of apartments fivefold. To keep the maintenance fees low for original tenants, many of them retirees, a high flip tax is charged, up to 17.5% of the gross sales price for “first sales” and up to 8.5% for “second sales”. In a similar instance, the shareholders at the Penn South sister cooperative in the Chelsea section of Manhattan voted to continue operating under limited equity rules.

Amalgamated Dwellings

The Amalgamated Dwellings, one of the oldest housing cooperatives in the United States, was the second cooperative sponsored by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, after the successful Amalgamated Cooperative Apartments in the Bronx. The six-story Art Deco building with 236 apartments was designed by the architects Springsteen & Goldhammer and was completed in 1930 at the site of a former printing plant. The building covered one city block, with a protected garden in the center. The design was intended to provide direct sunlight to all rooms, something that was missing from the typical Manhattan tenements. The cooperative also had a library, an auditorium, a nursery, and a gym. The apartments were priced at $500 a room, with monthly maintenance fees, including repayment of the mortgage, at $12.50 a room.

Hillman Housing Corporation

The Hillman Housing Corporation was the third cooperative sponsored by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. The cooperative, located on Grand Street between Kazan Plaza and Lewis Street on two sides of the Amalgamated Dwellings buildings, consists of three twelve-story buildings with 807 units. A garden links Hillman Houses to each other and to the Amalgamated Dwellings.

Construction was begun in November 1947 and was completed by 1950 at a total cost of $9,100,000. The design is attributed to Springsteen & Goldhammer, with Herman J. Jessor responsible for much of the work. Four slum blocks with sixty-five tenement buildings were torn down to clear the site for the development. As banks were unwilling to provide loans to the cooperative, financing was provided by the Mutual Life Insurance Company.

The cooperative is named after Sidney Hillman, founder and first president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Each of the three Hillman houses is named after a cooperative or labor leader:

East River Housing Corporation

The East River Housing Corporation was one of the first developments of the newly formed United Housing Foundation and was financially sponsored by the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. A mortgage loan was insured by the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency. Construction work was begun in November 1953 and completed in 1956. The cooperative has 1,672 apartments in four 20- and 21-story towers on an open lot facing the East River.

The project was designed by George W. Springsteen and his new associate, Herman J. Jessor, who would go on to design many other UHF projects, including Co-op City. The buildings followed the towers in a park concept introduced to the U.S. in the late 1930s by the Castle Village towers in Hudson Heights in upper Manhattan. The Castle Village layout, with cross-shaped towers placed diagonally to the cardinal directions optimized to give each apartment a maximum view, was used by most post-war socialand affordable housing in New York City. Springsteen’s derivation, used already at Hillman Houses, connects three of these towers side by side. The East River towers also share the reinforced concrete construction and red brick facade with Castle Village. At the time of construction the 21 story towers were the highest reinforced concrete buildings in the U.S.

Each of the four East River houses is named after a labor leader:

Seward Park Housing Corporation

Seward Park Housing Corporation is located in the triangle between Grand Street and East Broadway, and abuts the New York Citypublic park that shares its name. The buildings, designed by Herman Jessor,[1] share the general design of the East River Houses, with four towers facing the Lower East Side. Each of the twelve semi-attached towers has seven or eight apartments on each floor around a central stairwell and corridor.

Construction work was begun in 1957[citation needed] and finished in 1959[2] at a total cost of $23,258,392.75.[citation needed]A mortgage loan from Bowery Savings Bank and pension funds of the United Hatters, Cap & Millinery Workers, International Union as well as Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America covered $18 million, with about 25% of the costs paid as equity by the 1,728 cooperative members.[citation needed]

The buildings are known for their murals by Hugo Gellert in a socialist realist style.[citation needed] Each of the murals depicts a “progressive” hero with an associated quote:

Williamsburg Bridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Williamsburg Bridge
Above Williamsburg Bridge crop.jpg
Carries 8 lanes of roadway,
2 tracks of the NYCS J NYCS M NYCS Z trains of the New York City Subway,
pedestrians, and bicycles
Crosses East River
Locale Manhattan and Brooklyn, in New York City
Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation
Architect Henry Hornbostel
Designer Leffert L. Buck
Design Suspension bridge and truss causeways
Total length 7,308 feet (2,227 m)
Width 118 feet (36 m)
Longest span 1,600 feet (490 m)
Vertical clearance 10 feet 6 inches (3.2 m) (inner roadways only)
Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mean high water
Opened December 19, 1903; 110 years ago
Toll Free
Daily traffic 106,783 (2008)[1]
Connects:
Manhattan at Delancey St. with the Williamsburgneighborhood of Brooklyn
Wpdms ISS002E6333 williamsburg bridge.jpg
Coordinates 40.713°N 73.97°WCoordinates40.713°N 73.97°W

The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). It once carried New York State Route 27A and was planned to carry Interstate 78, though these plans were aborted by the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway and Bushwick Expressway.

This is one of four toll-free crossings between Manhattan and Brooklyn or Queens.

History

File:WilliamsburgBridge1903opening.ogg

Historical film clip of a procession during the opening of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903.

Construction on the bridge, the second to cross this river, began in 1896, with Leffert L. Buck as chief engineer, Henry Hornbostel as architect and Holton D. Robinson as assistant engineer, and the bridge opened on December 19, 1903 at a cost of $24,200,000.[2][3] At the time it was constructed, the Williamsburg Bridge set the record for the longest suspension bridge span on Earth. The record fell in 1924, when the Bear Mountain Bridge was completed.

It is an unconventional structure, as suspension bridges go; though the main span hangs from cables in the usual manner, the side spans leading to the approaches are supported by trusswork, drawing no support from the cables above.[4] The main span of the bridge is 1,600 feet (490 m) long. The entire bridge is 7,308 feet (2,227 m) long between cable anchor terminals, and the deck is 118 feet (36 m) wide. The height at the center of the bridge is 135 feet (41 m) and each tower is 335 feet (102 m), measurements being taken from the river’s surface at high-water mark.

This bridge and the Manhattan Bridge are the only suspension bridges in New York City that still carry both automobile and rail traffic. In addition to this two-track rail line, connecting the New York City Subway‘s BMT Nassau Street Lineand BMT Jamaica Line, there were once two sets of trolley tracks.

The Brooklyn landing is between Grand Street and Broadway, which both had ferries at the time. The five ferry routes operated from these landings withered and went out of business by 1908.[5]

Had the Lower Manhattan Expressway been built, the Williamsburg Bridge would have been designated Interstate 78.

The bridge has been under reconstruction since the 1980s, largely to repair damage caused by decades of deferred maintenance. The bridge was completely shut down to motor vehicle traffic and subway trains on April 12, 1988 after inspectors discovered severe corrosion in a floor beam.[6] The cast iron stairway on the Manhattan side, and the steep ramp from Driggs Avenue on the Williamsburg side to the footwalks, were replaced to allow handicapped access in the 1990s. Since the new bike path opened, the bridge has become the most heavily bicycled span in North America [7]

A celebration was held on June 22, 2003, to mark the 100th anniversary of the bridge and the area surrounding Continental Army Plaza was filled with musical performers, exhibits on the history of the bridge, and street vendors. Dignitaries marched across the bridge carrying the 45-star American flag used in a game of capture the flag played by workers after the placement of the final cable in June 1902. A truck-sized birthday cake was specially made for the event by Domino Sugar, which had a factory on the East River waterfront near the bridge.[8] The bridge was designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 2009.[4]

In 1999, Gandhi Engineering designed, engineered, and installed the pedestrian bridge along the Williamsburg Bridge.

 

East River

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the East River in New York City. For other uses, see East River (disambiguation).
East River
Tidal strait
East River and UN.jpg
East River and the headquarters of the United Nations inManhattan, as seen from Roosevelt Island.
Country United States
State New York
Municipality New York City
Tributaries
 – left Newtown CreekFlushing River
 – right Westchester CreekBronx River,
Bronx KillHarlem River
Source Long Island Sound
 – coordinates 40.8039900°N 73.8251343°W
Mouth Upper New York Bay
 – coordinates 40.696355°N 74.016609°W
Length 16 mi (26 km)
The East River is shown in red on this satellite photo of New York City.
Wikimedia Commons: East River

The East River is a salt water tidal strait in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island – including the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn – from the Bronx on the North American mainland, and the island of Manhattan. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the Sound River.[1] The tidal strait changes its flow direction frequently.

 More to follow …………

Heritage Trail In Lower Manhattan

Download PDF

 My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

The Financial District

Financial District

South Ferry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battery Maritime Building, where the Governors Island ferry leaves from

Entrance to the South Ferry subway station

South Ferry is at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City and is the embarkation point for ferries to Staten Island (Staten Island Ferry, through the Staten Island Ferry Whitehall Terminal) and Governors Island.

History

The origin of the name South Ferry is probably one of the more misunderstood trivia, even to New Yorkers accustomed to using it in a geographical sense. One would suppose that it is so called because it is at the southern tip of Manhattan, and it hosts ferries. In actuality, it was the name of the South Ferry, one of several ferries between what were then the separate cities of New York and Brooklyn. The “Old Ferry”, which later was renamed the “Fulton Ferry“, crossed between Manhattan and Brooklyn from streets that in each city would eventually be renamed “Fulton Street” after the ferry company. The “New Ferry” crossed further east, between Catherine Street in Manhattan, and Main Street in Brooklyn.

As the City of Brooklyn grew, the area south of Atlantic Avenue (known as “South Brooklyn“) began to become built-up, but lacked easy access to the ferry terminals in the northern parts of the city of Brooklyn. Thus, a new ferry was established in 1836 to take passengers directly to Atlantic Avenue and the southern parts of the City of Brooklyn, and so was called the “South Ferry”. The ferry connected to the foot of Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn and the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad (later part of the Long Island Rail Road) through the Cobble Hill Tunnel. In addition, South Ferry was the name of the Brooklyn landing and ferry house of the aforementioned ferry.

Battery Park, abutting South Ferry on the west, has docking areas for ferries to Liberty Island and Ellis Island.

Transportation

South Ferry is served by subway stations including:

Also serving the ferry terminal directly is the M15 Select Bus Service route via a bus loop directly at the front door of the terminal; other bus routes, such as the M5 and M20 servicing the area stop on nearby streets.

In earlier years, South Ferry also hosted a four-track elevated terminal with access to all Manhattan elevated train lines running up SecondThirdSixth and Ninth Avenues. These lines were closed in stages from 1938 to 1955.

 

Battery Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battery Park
Battery Park.JPG

Aerial view of Battery Park. To the left Pier A, next to it Castle Clinton, and to the right South Ferry Terminal, behind the park the Financial District can be seen (2010)
Location at the Battery, the southern tip ofManhattan Island in New York City, facing New York Harbor
Area 25 acres (10 ha)

Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 ha) public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, facingNew York Harbor. The Battery is named for the artillery batteries that were positioned there in the city’s early years to protect the settlement behind them. At the north end of the park is Castle Clinton, the often repurposed last remnant of the defensive works which inspired the name of the park, the former fireboat station Pier A and Hope Garden, a memorial to AIDS victims. At the other end of the park is Battery Gardens restaurant, next to the United States Coast Guard Battery Building. Along the waterfront, Statue Cruises offers ferries to the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. The park is also the site of the East Coast Memorial which commemorates U.S. servicemen who died in coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean during World War II, and several other memorials.

To the northwest of the park lies Battery Park City, a planned community built on landfill in the 1970s and 80s, which includes Robert F. Wagner Park and the Battery Park City Promenade. Together with Hudson River Park, a system of greenspaces, bikeways and promenades now extend up the Hudson shoreline. A bikeway might be built through the park that will connect the Hudson River and East River parts of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway. Across State Street to the northeast stands the old U.S. Customs House, now used as a branch of the National Museum of the American Indian and the district U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Peter Minuit Plaza abuts the southeast end of the park, directly in front of the South Ferry Terminal of the Staten Island Ferry.

Stop 1: Castle Clinton

 

Stop 2: Monument to the Immigrants

Stop 4: The Statue Of Liberty

Stop 5: Ellis Island

Google Ellis Island Photo Tour

 

Museum of Jewish Heritage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Museum of Jewish Heritage
Museum of Jewish Heritage 005.JPG

Aerial view of the Museum of Jewish Heritage
Established 1997
Location 36 Battery Place, New YorkNY,U.S.
Coordinates 40.706211°N 74.018750°WCoordinates40.706211°N 74.018750°W
Type Holocaust/Jewish museum
Director David Marwell
Public transit access New York City BusM5M15,M15 SBS, and M20 to South Ferry
New York City Subway:
Bowling Green (NYCS 4 NYCS 5 trains)
Broad Street (NYCS J NYCS Z trains)
Website www.mjhnyc.org

The pagoda-like structure of the museum

The Museum’s Robert M. Morgenthau wing

The Museum of Jewish Heritage, located in Battery Park City in ManhattanNew York CIty, is a living memorial to those who perished in the Holocaust. The Museum honors those who died by celebrating their lives – cherishing the traditions that they embraced, examining their achievements and faith, and affirming the vibrant worldwide Jewish community that is their legacy today. The building, designed by Roche-Dinkeloo, is topped by a pyramid structure called the Living Memorial to the Holocaust.

Since the Museum first opened its doors in 1997, visitors of all ages and backgrounds have gained a perspective on 20th and 21st century Jewish history and heritage. Now in its second decade, the Museum has welcomed more than 1.5 million visitors from all over the world.

The two Biblical quotes that define the Museum’s mission – “Remember, Never Forget” and “There Is Hope For Your Future” – also define the Museum’s perspective on the events of the 20th and 21st century Jewish experience. Although the Museum centers on life before, during, and after the Holocaust, the obligation to remember is enriched and enhanced by a commitment to the principles of social justice, education, and culture in the Jewish community and beyond.

Included in the Museum are special exhibitions, public programming, and contemplative spaces, which are intended to enrich the visitor experience.

Affiliates

JewishGen

JewishGen is the leading internet pioneer for Jewish genealogy and provides free online access to a vast collection of Jewish ancestral records in a simple, understandable, and searchable format. For many Jews, knowledge of their family history perished in the Holocaust. JewishGen and the Museum affiliated in 2003, helping the Museum to fulfill its mission of memory and legacy. JewishGen features over 20 million records, 5 million family trees, 1.7 million burial records, hundreds of translated Yizkor (memorial) books, research tools, a family finder, educational classes, and many other constantly updated resources.

 

Stop 11: Subway Kiosk

Stop 12: US Custom House & the National Museum of the American Indian

Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40.704294°N 74.013773°W

U.S. Custom House
AH Custom house dusk jeh.JPG
(2008)
Location Bowling Green
ManhattanNew York City
Built 1901-1907
Architect Cass GilbertDaniel Chester French
Architectural style Beaux-Arts
NRHP Reference # 72000889[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP January 31, 1972
Designated NHL December 8, 1976[1]

The Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House is a building in New York City built 1902–1907 by the federal government to house the duty collection operations for the port of New York. It is located near the southern tip of Manhattan, roughly on the same spot as Fort Amsterdam, the original center of the settlement of New Amsterdam. Its address is 1 Bowling Green. The building is now the home of the New York branch of the National Museum of the American Indian as well as the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. As of 2012, it is also the home to the National Archives at New York City.

Stop 13: Bowling Green

Screen Shot 2014-08-25 at 5.59.19 pm

Bowling Green

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bowling Green Fence and Park
Wpdms 20020923b bowling green composite.jpg
Bowling Green in a composite photograph taken from the steps of the U.S. Custom House looking north
Location Southern end ofBroadwayNew York City
Coordinates 40°42′18″N74°0′49″WCoordinates40°42′18″N 74°0′49″W
Built 1733
Governing body Local
NRHP Reference # 80002673
Added to NRHP April 9, 1980[1]

Bowling Green is a small public park in Lower Manhattan at the foot of Broadway next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam. Built in 1733, originally including a bowling green, it is the oldest public park in New York City and is surrounded by its original 18th century fence. At its northern end is the Charging Bull sculpture. Bowling Green Fence and Park is listed on the U.S.National Register of Historic Places.

History

Consuelo KanagaUntitled (Bowling Green, NYC) early 20th century,Brooklyn Museum

Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C., (c. 1859) A romanticized Victorian era painting with historical inaccuracies: the sculpture is depicted in 1850s garb, and Native Americans, women and children are at the scene.

The park has long been a center of activity in the city going back to the days of New Amsterdam, when it served as a cattle market between 1638 and 1647, and parade ground. In 1675, the Common Council designated the “plaine afore the forte” for an annual market of “graine, cattle and other produce of the country”. In 1677 the city’s first public well was dug in front of Fort Amsterdam at Bowling Green.[2] In 1733, the Common Council leased a portion of the parade grounds to three prominent neighboring landlords for apeppercorn a year, upon their promise to create a park that would be “the delight of the Inhabitants of the City” and add to its “Beauty and Ornament”; the improvements were to include a “bowling green” with “walks therein”.[3] The surrounding streets were not paved with cobblestones until 1744.

On August 21, 1770, the British government erected a 4,000 pound (1,800 kg) gilded leadequestrian statue of King George III in Bowling Green; the King was dressed in Roman garb in the style of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius. The statue had been commissioned in 1766, along with a statue of William Pitt, from the prominent London sculptor Joseph Wilton, as a celebration of victory after the Seven Years’ War.

With the rapid deterioration of relations with the mother country after 1770, the statue became a magnet for the Bowling Green protests;[4] in 1773, the city passed an anti-graffiti and anti-desecration law to counter vandalism against the monument, and a protective cast-iron fence, which still stands,[5] was built along the perimeter of the park. On July 9, 1776, after theDeclaration of Independence was read to Washington‘s troops at the current site of City Hall, localSons of Liberty rushed down Broadway to Bowling Green, where they toppled the statue. The fence post finials of cast-iron crowns on the protective fence were sawed off, with the saw marks still visible today.[5] The event is one of the most enduring images in the city’s history. According to folklore, the statue was chopped up and shipped to a Connecticut foundry under the direction ofOliver Wolcott to be made into 42,088 patriot bullets at 20 bullets per pound (2,104.4 pounds). The statue’s head was to have been paraded about town on pike-staffs, but was recovered by Loyalistsand sent to England. Eight pieces of the lead statue are preserved in the New-York Historical Society;[6] one in the Museum of the City of New York as well as one in Connecticut [7] (estimated total of 260/270 pounds);[8] The event has been depicted over the years in several works of art, including an 1854 painting by William Walcutt, and an 1859 painting by Johannes Adam Simon Oertel.

Bowling Green around 1900

The marble slab of the statue’s pedestal was first used for a tombstone of a Major John Smith of the Black Watch who died in 1783; when Smith’s grave site was leveled in 1804, the slab became a stone step at two successive mansions; in 1880 the inscription was rediscovered and the slab was transferred to the New-York Historical Society. The monument base can be seen in the background of the portrait ofGeorge Washington painted by John Trumbull in 1790, conserved in the City Hall. The William Pitt statue is in the New-York Historical Society.[9]

Following the Revolution, the remains of the fort facing Bowling Green were demolished (1790) and part of the rubble used to extend the Battery towards the west. In its place a grand Government House was built, suitable, it was hoped, for a President’s House, with a four-columned portico facing across Bowling Green and up Broadway. Governor John Jay later inhabited it. When the state capital was moved to Albany, the building served as a boarding house and then the custom house before being demolished in 1815.[10] Elegant townhouses were built around the park, which remained largely the private domain of the residents, though now some of the Tory patricians of New York were replaced by Republican ones; leading New York merchants, led by Abraham Kennedy, in a mansion at 1 Broadway that had a 56-foot facade under a central pediment[11] and a front towards the Battery Parade, as the new piece of open ground was called. The Hon. John Watts, whose summer place was Rose Hill, ManhattanChancellor Robert Livingston at no. 5, Stephen Whitney at no. 7, and John Stevens[disambiguation needed], all constructed brick residences in Federal style facing Bowling Green.

The Alexander Macomb House (New York City), the second Presidential Mansion, stood north of the park at 39-41 Broadway. PresidentGeorge Washington occupied it from February 23 to August 30, 1790, before the U.S. capital moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

By 1850, however, with the opening of Lafayette Street, then of Washington Square Park and Fifth Avenue, the general northward migration of residences in Manhattan led to the conversion of the residences into the shipping offices, resulting in full public access to the park.

The park suffered neglect after World War II, but was restored by the city in the 1970s and is now one of the most heavily traveled plazas in the city. The Bowling Green Fence and Park were listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1980.[1]

In 1982 the Irish Institute of New York installed a plaque in Bowling Green park commemorating an important religious liberty challenge which occurred in Manhattan. Reverend Francis Makemie, the founder of American Presbyterianism, challenged the edict of Lord Cornbury by preaching at the home of William Jackson near by the Park. He was arrested in the Catholic colony and charged with preaching a “pernicious doctrine”, but later acquitted.

In 1989, the sculpture Charging Bull by Arturo Di Modica was installed at the northern tip of the park by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation after it had been confiscated by the police following its illegal installation on Wall Street. The sculpture has become one of the beloved and recognizable landmarks of the Financial District.

The pool and fountain in the park were temporarily modified when the park was used as a filming location for The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (2010 film) in early June, 2009. Between shoots, equipment was stored in the park and on nearby streets.

Description

The south end of the plaza is bounded by the front entrance of Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, which houses the New York branch of the Smithsonian Institution’sNational Museum of the American Indian and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Manhattan Division). Previously there was a public street along the south edge of the park, also called “Bowling Green”, but since this area was needed for a modern entrance to Bowling Green subway station, the road was eliminated and paved over with cobblestones. The eponymous New York City Subway station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, opened in 1905 and serving the IRT Lexington Avenue Line‘s4 5 trains, is located under the plaza. Entrances dating from both 1905 and more recent renovations are located in and near the plaza.[12]The park is a teardrop-shaped plaza formed by the branching of Broadway as it nears Whitehall. The park is a fenced-in grassy area with benches that are popular lunchtime destinations for workers in the nearby Financial District. There is a fountain in the center.

Surrounding architecture

The urbanistic value of the space is created by the skyscrapers and other structures that surround it (listed clockwise):

Charging Bull

Charging Bull, a 3,200-kilogram (7,100 lb) bronze sculpture in Bowling Green, designed by Arturo Di Modica, stands 11 feet (3.4 m) tall[15] and measures 16 feet (4.9 m) long.[16]The oversize sculpture depicts a bull, the symbol of aggressive financial optimism and prosperity, leaning back on its haunches and with its head lowered as if ready to charge. The sculpture is both a popular tourist destination which draws thousands of people a day, as well as “one of the most iconic images of New York”[17] and a “Wall Street icon”[18]symbolizing “Wall Street” and the Financial District.

Stop 14: Charging Bull

Stop 15: # One Broadway

1 Broadway

Stop 21: Jewish Plymouth Rock

Stop 22: The Grand Canal

Stop 25: Fraunces Tavern

Fraunces Tavern

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fraunces Tavern
Fraunces Tavern, south side.jpg
South front of Fraunces Tavern on Broad Street
Location 54 Pearl Street, New York, New York, USA
Coordinates 40°42′12″N74°0′41″WCoordinates40°42′12″N 74°0′41″W
Built 1719
Architectural style Georgian
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 08000140[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP March 6, 2008
Designated NYCL November 23, 1965
Fraunces Tavern Block
Frauncestavern.JPG
North and west fronts of Fraunces Tavern on Pearl Street at Broad Street
Location Bounded by Pearl Street,Coenties Slip, Water Street and Broad Street, New York, New York, USA

Fraunces Tavern in New York City is a tavernrestaurant and museum housed in a conjectural reconstruction of a building that played a prominent role in pre-Revolution and American Revolution history. The building, located at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street, has been owned by Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York Inc. since 1904, which claims it is Manhattan‘s oldest surviving building.[4] The building is a tourist site and a part of the American Whiskey Trail and the New York Freedom Trail.[5][6]

 

Stop: 27: First Jewish Settlement

Mill Lane

Mill Lane

 

From Oscar Israelowitz’s book

  First Jewish NY

First Jewish NY 1

History of the Jews in New York City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The first Jewish settlement in what became the United States was in Dutch New Amsterdam, which is now known as New York City.[1]

Jewish shopkeeper in New York, c. 1929

1654 – 1881

The first significant group of Jews to come to New York, then the colony New Amsterdam, came in September 1654 as refugees from Recife, Brazil. Portugal had just re-conquered what is now known of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco from the Netherlands, and the Sephardi Jews there promptly fled. Most went to Amsterdam, but twenty-three headed for New Amsterdam instead. They were greeted by some Ashkenazimwho had preceded them by just a few weeks. Governor Peter Stuyvesant was at first unwilling to accept them but succumbed to pressure from the Dutch West India Company–itself pressed by Jewish stockholders–to let them remain. Nevertheless, he imposed numerous restrictions and taxes on his Jewish subjects. Eventually, many of these Jews left.[1]

When the British took the colony from the Dutch in 1664, the only Jewish name on the requisite oath of loyalty given to residents was Asser Levy. This is the only record of a Jewish presence at the time, until 1680 when some of Levy’s relatives arrived from Amsterdam shortly before he died.[1]

The first synagogue, the Sephardi Shearith Israel, was established in 1682, but it did not get its own building until 1730. Over time, the synagogue became dominant in Jewish life, organizing social services and mandating affiliation for all New York Jews.[1] Even though by 1720 Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim,[2] the Sephardi customs were retained.[1]

An influx of German Jews followed the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. The increasing number of Ashkenazim led to the founding of the city’s second synagogue, B’nai Jeshurun, in 1825. Several others followed in rapid succession, including the first Polish one, Congregation Shaare Zedek, in 1839. In 1845, the first Reform temple, Congregation Emanu-El of New York opened.[3]

By this time numerous communal aid societies were formed. These were usually quite small, and a single synagogue might be associated with more than a few such organizations. Two of the most important of these merged in 1859 to form the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society[3] (Jewish orphanages were constructed on 77th Street near 3rd Avenue and another in Brooklyn). In 1852 the “Jews’ Hospital” (renamed in 1871 Mount Sinai Hospital), which would one day be considered one of the best in the country,[4] was established.[3]

 

Luis Moises Gomez

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Luis Moises Gomez (c. 1660–1740[1] ) was a Sephardic Jewish merchant and trader, whose Spanish Jewish ancestors fled to France and England to escape from the Spanish Inquisition for the New World.

Gomez came to New York in 1703. In 1705 he was granted an Act of Denization from Queen Anne of England. This certificate gave him rights to conduct business, own property, and live freely within the Colonies without an oath of allegiance to the Church of England. Gomez established himself as a prominent businessman and leader within the early Jewish community in New York and in 1714 he purchased 6,900 acres (28 km2) in Marlboro on the west side of the Hudson River in the then-British colony of New York. There he built a single-story fieldstone block house now called the Gomez Mill House. For some thirty years he and his sons lived there and ran a profitable fur trading post.[2] He quarried limestone and milled timber there for the City of New York, 60 miles (97 km) south.

His house on the Hudson Highlands where several Indian trails converged served as a frontier trading post for the new colonists. Other pioneers, fleeing tyranny, and the cruelties in Europe for the promise of a new life, then settled in the Hudson Valley. His house has been continuously inhabited for more than 280 years, and it is the earliest known survivingJewish residence in the country and the oldest home in Orange County listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[2]

In 1727 he led the drive to finance and construct the Mill Street Synagogue in lower Manhattan, the first Synagogue of Shearith Israel, America’s oldest Jewish congregation, and in 1728 he served as its first Parnas (president (Hebrew.))

Shearith Israel

In 1685 the application of Saul Brown (originally Saul Pardo) to trade at retail was denied, as was also that of the Jews for liberty to exercise their religion publicly. That they did so privately in some definite place of worship would appear from the fact that a map of New York, dated 1695, shows the location of a Jewish synagogue on Beaver Street, also that Saul Brown was the minister, and that the congregation comprised twenty families. Five years later the site of the synagogue was so well known that in a conveyance of property the premises were referred to as a landmark. In 1710 the minister of the congregation, Abraham de Lucena, was granted exemption from civil and military service by reason of his ministerial functions, and reference is made to the enjoyment of the same privileges by his predecessors. The minutes of the Congregation Shearith Israel of New York begin in 1729, when it was located in Mill Street, and refer to records dating back as far as 1706. This congregation established on Mill Street, in 1730, on a lot purchased two years before, the first synagogue in the future United States.

It would thus appear that the religious rights of these early Jewish settlers had been secured in the beginning of the 18th century, and that they enjoyed also many political rights. An act passed by the General Assembly of New York on November 15, 1727, provided that when the oath of abjuration was to be taken by any British subject professing the Jewish religion, the words “upon the true faith of a Christian” might be omitted. Three days later an act was passed naturalizing one Daniel Nunes da Costa. A bitter political controversy of 1737 resulted in the decision by the General Assembly that Jews should not be allowed to vote for members of that body.

In 1740 Parliament passed a general act permitting foreign Jews to be naturalized in the colonies. Previous to this date, however, the New York Colonial Assembly had passed numerous special acts of naturalization, some of which were applicable to individuals only; others, more general in character, under which Jews could be naturalized without taking oath “upon the true faith of a Christian,” were also put upon the statute-book. Between this time and the Revolutionary War the Jewish community in this colony increased by slow stages, the principal immigrants coming from SpainPortugal, and the West Indies.

During the French and Indian War, Jacob Franks was the royal agent, in association with a British syndicate, for provisioning the British forces in America; his dealings with the crown during this period exceeded £750,000 in value.

******************

Around Wall Street

*****************************

Stop 32: Trinity Church

Google Tour

Trinity Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trinity Church and Graveyard
Trinity Church NYC 004b.JPG
Trinity Church from Wall Street
Location 75 Broadway
ManhattanNew York City
Coordinates 40°42′29″N74°0′44″WCoordinates40°42′29″N 74°0′44″W
Built 1846
Architect Richard Upjohn
Architectural style Gothic Revival
NRHP Reference # 76001252
Significant dates
Added to NRHP December 8, 1976[1]
Designated NHL December 8, 1976,[2]
Designated NYCL August 16, 1966

Trinity Church, at 75 Broadway in lower Manhattan, is a historic, active, well-endowed[3] parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York. Trinity Church is near the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway, in New York CityNew York.

History and architecture

In 1696, Governor Benjamin Fletcher approved the purchase of land in Lower Manhattan by the Church of England community for construction of a new church. The parish received its charter from King William III on May 6, 1697. Its land grant specified an annual rent of sixty bushels of wheat.[4] The first rector was William Vesey (for whom nearby Vesey Street is named), a protege of Increase Mather, who served for 49 years until his death in 1746.

 

**********************************

Stop 33: World Trade Center

World Trade Center

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
World Trade Center[1]
World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001).jpg

The original World Trade Center of New York City in March 2001. The North Tower (left), with antenna spire, is 1 WTC. The South Tower(right) is 2 WTC. All seven buildings of the WTC complex are partially visible (see map below). The red granite-clad building left of the Twin Towers is the original 7 World Trade Center. In the background is the East River.
Record height
Tallest in the world from 1971 to 1973[I]
Preceded by Empire State Building
Surpassed by Willis Tower
General information
Status Destroyed (Original)
Rebuilding
Location New York City
Coordinates 40°42′42″N74°00′45″WCoordinates40°42′42″N 74°00′45″W
Groundbreaking August 25, 1966
Opening April 4, 1973
Destroyed September 11, 2001
Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Design and construction
Architect
Engineer Worthington, Skilling, Helle & Jackson,[3]Leslie E. Robertson Associates

The World Trade Center is a complex of buildings under construction in Lower ManhattanNew York CityUnited States, replacing an earlier complex of seven buildings with the same name on the same site. The original World Trade Center featured landmark twin towers, which opened on April 4, 1973, and were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001, along with 7 World Trade Center. The other buildings in the complex were severely damaged by the collapse of the twin towers, and their ruins were eventually demolished. The site is being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers, a memorial to those killed in the attacks, and a transportation hubOne World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex, reaching more than 100 stories at its completion.[4] It will be the tallest building in the United States when complete.

At the time of their completion the “Twin Towers”, the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower), at 1,368 feet (417 m), and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower), were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC5 WTC6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million ($2,300,000,000 in 2014 dollars).[5] The complex was located in New York City’s Financial Districtand contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.[6][7]

The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993 and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated act of terrorism. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower (2) collapsed, followed a half-hour later by the North Tower (1). The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,753 people.[8] Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the other buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area (including the World Financial Center). The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months.

Over the following years, plans were created for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site planand memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan; however, substantial changes were made to the design.

The first new building at the site was the 7 World Trade Center, which opened in May 2006. The memorial section of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum opened on September 11, 2011 and the museum opened in May 2014. Construction of the One World Trade Center is nearing completion and it is expected to open in 2014; the 4 World Trade Center opened on November 13, 2013; the 3 World Trade Center is under construction and expected to open in 2016; as of November 2013, according to an agreement made with Silverstein Properties Inc., the 2 World Trade Center will not be built to its full height until sufficient leasing is established to make the building financially viable;[9] and 5 World Trade Center will be developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, but, as of February 2014, a schedule was not confirmed.[10]

Heritage Walk In Tribeca & On Brooklyn Bridge

Download PDF

 My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Tribeca

Stop 47: A Floating Synagogue

49 White Street

 Tribeca

49 White Street

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40.718266°N 74.007819°W

Tribeca map crop.png

Textile Building (1901) in the Tribeca Historic District

Tribeca, sometimes written as TriBeCa, and pronounced /trˈbɛkə/, is a neighborhood in Lower ManhattanNew York City. Its name is an acronym from “Triangle Below Canal Street”. The “triangle”, which is actually closer to a trapezoid, is bounded by Canal StreetWest StreetBroadway, and Vesey Street.[1] The neighborhood is home to the Tribeca Film Festival.

*******************************

Stop 46: Brooklyn Bridge

Brooklyn Bridge

IMG_6227

 

On the bridge

Plaques on the bridge

On the Brooklyn side at Dumbo

 

Brooklyn Bridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf.jpg

The Brooklyn Bridge, viewed from Manhattan
Carries Motor vehicles (cars only)
Elevated trains (until 1944)
Streetcars (until 1950)
Pedestrians and bicycles
Crosses East River
Locale New York City (ManhattanBrooklyn)
Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation
Designer John Augustus Roebling
Design Suspension/Cable-stay Hybrid
Total length 5,989 feet (1825 m)[1]
Width 85 feet (26 m)
Height 276.5 ft (84.3 m) above mean high water[2]
Longest span 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m)
Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mid-span
Opened May 24, 1883; 131 years ago[3]
Toll Free both ways
Daily traffic 123,781 (2008)[4]
Coordinates 40.70569°N 73.99639°WCoordinates40.70569°N 73.99639°W
Brooklyn Bridge
Pont de Brooklyn de nuit - Octobre 2008 edit.jpg
Built 1883
Architectural style neo-Gothic
NRHP Reference # 66000523
Significant dates
Added to NRHP 1966[5]
Designated NHL January 29, 1964[6]

The Brooklyn Bridge is a bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River. It has a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m), and was the first steel-wire suspension bridge constructed.

Originally referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and as the East River Bridge, it was dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge, a name from an earlier January 25, 1867, letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle,[7] and formally so named by the city government in 1915. Since its opening, it has become an icon of New York City, and was designated a National Historic Landmarkin 1964[6][8][9] and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972.[10]

Construction

John Augustus Roebling

The Brooklyn Bridge was initially designed by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling, who had previously designed and constructed shorter suspension bridges, such as Roebling’s Delaware Aqueduct in Lackawaxen, PennsylvaniaWaco Suspension Bridge in Waco, Texas, and the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge in Cincinnati, Ohio.

While conducting surveys for the bridge project, Roebling sustained a crush injury to his foot when a ferry pinned it against a piling. After amputation of his crushed toes he developed a tetanus infection which left him incapacitated and soon resulted in his death, not long after he had placed his 32-year-old son Washington Roebling in charge of the project.[11] Washington Roebling also suffered a paralyzing injury as a result ofdecompression sickness shortly after the beginning of construction on January 3, 1870.[12] This condition, first called “caisson disease” by the project physician Andrew Smith, afflicted many of the workers working within the caissons.[13][14] Roebling’s debilitating condition left him unable to physically supervise the construction firsthand.

Roebling conducted the entire construction from his apartment with a view of the work, designing and redesigning caissons and other equipment. He was aided by his wife Emily Warren Roebling who provided the critical written link between her husband and the engineers on site.[15] Under her husband’s guidance, Emily studied highermathematics, the calculations of catenary curves, the strengths of materials, bridge specifications, and the intricacies of cable construction.[16][17][18] She spent the next 11 years assisting Washington Roebling, helping to supervise the bridge’s construction.

When iron probes underneath the caisson for the Manhattan tower found the bedrock to be even deeper than expected, Roebling halted construction due to the increased risk of decompression sickness. He later deemed the aggregate overlying the bedrock 30 feet (9 m) below it to be firm enough to support the tower base, and construction continued.[19]

The towers are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement. The granite blocks were quarried and shaped on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, under a contract with the Bodwell Granite Company, and delivered from Maine to New York by schooner.[20]

Opening

The Brooklyn Bridge was opened for use on May 24, 1883. The opening ceremony was attended by several thousand people and many ships were present in the East Bay for the occasion. President Chester A. Arthur and Mayor Franklin Edson crossed the bridge to celebratory cannon fire and were greeted by Brooklyn Mayor Seth Low when they reached the Brooklyn-side tower. Arthur shook hands with Washington Roebling at the latter’s home, after the ceremony. Roebling was unable to attend the ceremony (and in fact rarely visited the site again), but held a celebratory banquet at his house on the day of the bridge opening. Further festivity included the performance of a band, gunfire from ships, and a fireworks display.[21]

File:New Brooklyn to New York via Brooklyn Bridge, no. 2, by Thomas A. Edison, Inc.ogv

Edison film, “New Brooklyn to New York Via Brooklyn Bridge”, 1899

On that first day, a total of 1,800 vehicles and 150,300 people crossed what was then the only land passage between Manhattan and Brooklyn. Emily Warren Roebling was the first to cross the bridge. The bridge’s main span over the East River is 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m). The bridge cost $15.5 million[clarification needed] to build and an estimated number of 27 people died during its construction.[22]

On May 30, 1883, six days after the opening, a rumor that the Bridge was going to collapse caused a stampede, which was responsible for at least twelve people being crushed and killed.[23] On May 17, 1884, P. T. Barnum helped to squelch doubts about the bridge’s stability—while publicizing his famous circus—when one of his most famous attractions, Jumbo, led a parade of 21 elephants over the Brooklyn Bridge.[24][25][26][27]

Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867

Tablet signage on the Manhattan-side tower of the Brooklyn Bridge

At the time it opened, and for several years, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world—50% longer than any previously built—and it has become a treasured landmark. Since the 1980s, it has been floodlit at night to highlight its architectural features. The architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. The paint scheme of the bridge is “Brooklyn Bridge Tan” and “Silver”, although it has been argued that the original paint was “Rawlins Red“.[28] At the time the bridge was built, the aerodynamics of bridge building had not been worked out. Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950s, well after the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Galloping Gertie) in 1940. It is therefore fortunate that the open truss structure supporting the deck is by its nature less subject to aerodynamic problems. Roebling designed a bridge and truss system that was six times as strong as he thought it needed to be. Because of this, the Brooklyn Bridge is still standing when many of the bridges built around the same time have vanished into history and been replaced. This is also in spite of the substitution of inferior quality wire in the cabling supplied by the contractor J. Lloyd Haigh—by the time it was discovered, it was too late to replace the cabling that had already been constructed. Roebling determined that the poorer wire would leave the bridge four rather than six times as strong as necessary, so it was eventually allowed to stand, with the addition of 250 cables. Diagonal cables were installed from the towers to the deck, intended to stiffen the bridge. They turned out to be unnecessary, but were kept for their distinctive beauty.

After the collapse in 2007 of the I-35W highway bridge in the city of Minneapolis, increased public attention has been brought to bear on the condition of bridges across the US, and it has been reported that the Brooklyn Bridge approach ramps received a rating of “poor” at its last inspection.[29] According to a NYC Department of Transportation spokesman, “The poor rating it received does not mean it is unsafe. Poor means there are some components that have to be rehabilitated.” A $508 million[clarification needed] project to replace the approaches began in 2010 and is scheduled to run until 2014.[30] As part of this project, two approach ramps will be widened from one lane to two, and clearance over the Brooklyn Queens Expressway will be increased.[31]

The bridge was built with numerous passageways and compartments in its anchorage. One compartment on the Manhattan side was famously used to store champagne and wine for a local dealer because of the consistent temperatures the space provided.[32]

The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is detailed in the 1972 book The Great Bridge by David McCullough[15] and Brooklyn Bridge(1981), the first PBS documentary film ever made by Ken Burns.[33] Burns drew heavily on McCullough’s book for the film and used him as narrator.[34] It is also described in Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a BBC docudrama series with accompanying book.

Pedestrian and vehicular access

Map of NYC dated 1885, two years after completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, showing street approaches to the bridge as they were

Cross section diagram (looking toward Manhattan)

The bridge originally carried horse-drawn and rail traffic, with a separate elevated walkway along the centerline for pedestrians and bicycles. Since 1950, the main roadway has carried six lanes of automobile traffic. Due to the roadway’s height (11 ft (3.4 m) posted) and weight (6,000 lb (2,700 kg) posted) restrictions, commercial vehicles and buses are prohibited from using this bridge. The two inside traffic lanes once carried elevated trains of the BMT from Brooklyn points to a terminal at Park Row via Sands StreetStreetcars ran on what are now the two center lanes (shared with other traffic) until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks. In 1950 the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was rebuilt to carry six lanes of automobile traffic.

The Brooklyn Bridge is accessible from the Brooklyn entrances of Tillary/Adams Streets, Sands/Pearl Streets, and Exit 28B of the eastbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. In Manhattan, motor cars can enter from either direction of the FDR DrivePark Row,Chambers/Centre Streets, and Pearl/Frankfort Streets. Pedestrian access to the bridge from the Brooklyn side is from either Tillary/Adams Streets (in between the vehicular entrance/exit), or a staircase on Prospect Sreet. between Cadman Plaza East and West. In Manhattan, the pedestrian walkway is accessible from the end of Centre Street, or through the unpaid south staircase of Brooklyn Bridge – City Hall / Chambers Street subway station complex.

View from the pedestrian walkway. The bridge’s cable arrangement forms a distinctive weblike pattern.

The Brooklyn Bridge has a wide pedestrian walkway open to walkers and cyclists, in the center of the bridge and higher than the automobile lanes. In 1971, a center line was painted to separate cyclists from pedestrians, creating one of the City’s first dedicated bike lanes.[35] More than 4,000 pedestrians and 3,100 cyclists cross the Brooklyn Bridge each day.[36] While the bridge has always permitted the passage of pedestrians across its span, its role in allowing thousands to cross takes on a special importance in times of difficulty when usual means of crossing the East River have become unavailable.

During transit strikes by the Transport Workers Union in 1980 and 2005, the bridge was used by people commuting to work, with Mayors Koch and Bloomberg crossing the bridge as a gesture to the affected public.[37][38]

Following the 19651977 and 2003 blackouts and most famously after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, the bridge was used by people leaving Manhattan after subway service was suspended. During the 2003 event, many crossing the bridge reported a swaying motion.[39] This swaying was caused by a much higher pedestrian load than usual, coupled with the tendency of pedestrians to synchronize their footfalls with a sway, amplifying the motion.[40] Several engineers expressed concern about how this would affect the bridge, although others noted that the bridge did withstand the event, and that the redundancies in its design—the inclusion of the three cable systems: suspension system, diagonal stay system, and stiffening truss—make it “probably the best secured bridge against such movements going out of control.”[39] The bridge’s designer, John Roebling, had claimed, long before, that due to such redundancies, the bridge would sag, yet not fall, even if one of these structural systems were to fail altogether.[15]

Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, c. 1883

Notable events

  • In 1919, Giorgio Pessi piloted what was then one of the world’s largest airplanes, the Caproni Ca.5, under the bridge.[41]
  • The centennial celebrations on May 24, 1983, saw a cavalcade of cars crossing the bridge, led by President Ronald Reagan. A flotilla of ships visited the harbor, parades were held, and in the evening the sky over the bridge was illuminated by Grucci Fireworks.[42] The Brooklyn Museum exhibited a selection of the original drawings made for the bridge’s construction, some by Washington Roebling himself. Media coverage of the centennial was declared “the public relations triumph of 1983” by Inc.[43]
  • In June 1993, following 13 reconnoiters inside the metal structure, and with the help of a mountain guide, Thierry Devaux performed (illegally) eight acrobatic bungee jumps above the East River close to the Brooklyn-side pier, in the early morning. He used an electric winch between each acrobatic figure.[44]
  • On March 1, 1994, Lebanese-born Rashid Baz opened fire on a van carrying members of the Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox JewishMovement, striking 16-year-old student Ari Halberstam and three others traveling on the bridge.[45] Halberstam died five days later from his wounds. Baz was apparently acting out of revenge for the Hebron massacre of 29 Muslims by Baruch Goldstein that had taken place days earlier on February 25, 1994. Baz was convicted of murder and sentenced to a 141-year prison term. After initially classifying the murder as one committed out of road rage, the Justice Department reclassified the case in 2000 as a terrorist attack. The entrance ramp to the bridge on the Manhattan side was named the Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp in memory of the victim.[46]
  • In 2003, truck driver Iyman Faris was sentenced to about 20 years in prison for providing material support to Al-Qaeda, after an earlier plot to destroy the bridge by cutting through its support wires with blowtorches was thwarted through information the National Security Agency uncovered through wiretapped phone conversations and interrogation of Al-Qaeda militants.[47]
  • In 2006, a Cold War-era bunker was found by city workers near the East River shoreline of Manhattan’s Lower East Side. The bunker, hidden within the masonry anchorage, still contained the emergency supplies that were being stored for a potential nuclear attack by the Soviet Union.[48]
  • Beginning on May 22, 2008, festivities were held over a five-day period to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge. The events kicked off with a live performance of the Brooklyn Philharmonic in Empire–Fulton Ferry State Park, followed by special lighting of the bridge’s towers and a fireworks display.[49] Other events held during the 125th anniversary celebrations, which coincided with the Memorial Day weekend, included a film series, historical walking tours, information tents, a series of lectures and readings, a bicycle tour of Brooklyn, a miniature golf course featuring Brooklyn icons, and other musical and dance performances.[50] Just before the anniversary celebrations, the Telectroscope, which created a video link between New York and London, was installed on the Brooklyn side of the bridge. The installation lasted for a few weeks and permitted viewers in New York to see people looking into a matching telectroscope in front of London’s Tower Bridge.[51] A newly renovated pedestrian connection toDUMBO was also unveiled before the anniversary celebrations.[52]
  • On October 1, 2011, more than 700 protesters with the Occupy Wall Street movement were arrested while attempting to march across the bridge on the roadway.[53]
  • Early in the morning on July 22, 2014, the two American flags attached to poles atop each tower were found to have been replaced by American flags that had been bleached white. It is believed that several individuals covered the lights that illuminate the flags, then climbed the cables to the top of the two bridge towers. No motivation had yet been confirmed for this incident, but it had been suggested that the white flags were meant to symbolize surrender.[54][55][56] Evidence including surveillance footage and DNA taken from the bridge was reviewed,[57][58] and by August 1, 2014, up to nine “persons of interest” had been found, with a possible motive being marijuana activism.[59] However, on August 12, 2014, two Berlin artists claimed responsibility for hoisting the two white flags, causing the security panic and investigation by New York police. Mischa Leinkauf and Matthias Wermke said the flags were meant to celebrate “the beauty of public space” and the anniversary of the death of German-born John Roebling, who designed the famous bridge. The artists say they hand-sewed the two flags into all-white replicas of an American flag and had the original flags ready to return. “This was not an anti-American statement,” Wermke said.[60][61][62]

Notable jumpers

The first person to jump from the bridge was Robert Emmet Odlum, brother of women’s rights activist Charlotte Odlum Smith, on May 19, 1885.[63][64] He struck the water at an angle and died shortly thereafter from internal injuries.[65] Steve Brodie was the most famous jumper, or self-proclaimed jumper (in 1886). Cartoonist Otto Eppers jumped and survived in 1910, and was then tried and acquitted for attempted suicide.[66]

Cultural significance

“Bird’s-Eye View of the Great New York and Brooklyn Bridge and Grand Display of Fire Works on Opening Night”

Contemporaries marveled at what technology was capable of and the bridge became a symbol of the optimism of the time. John Perry Barlow wrote in the late 20th century of the “literal and genuinely religious leap of faith” embodied in the Brooklyn Bridge … “the Brooklyn Bridge required of its builders faith in their ability to control technology.”[67]

The Cuban poet José Martí wrote an article named “The Bridge of Brooklyn” for the magazine La América, published in June 1883, shortly after the bridge opened to the public.[68] The article was published in his book “Escenas norteamericanas”.[69] In the article, Martí made comparisons between certain animals (like snakes) and the structure of the bridge.[citation needed]

References to “selling the Brooklyn Bridge” abound in American culture, sometimes as examples of rural gullibility but more often in connection with an idea that strains credulity. For example, “If you believe that, I’ve got a bridge to sell you.” George C. Parker and William McCloundy are two early 20th-century con-men who had (allegedly) successfully perpetrated this scam on unwitting tourists.[70] The 1949Bugs Bunny cartoon Bowery Bugs is a joking reference to Bugs “selling” a story of the Brooklyn Bridge to a naïve tourist.

The Modernist American poet Hart Crane used the Brooklyn Bridge as a central metaphor and organizing structure for his second and most important book of poetry, The Bridge. This book takes the form of a long poem spanning eight parts, beginning with an ode (“Proem: To Brooklyn Bridge”) and ending with a transfigured vision of the bridge as the unifying symbol of America (“Atlantis”). Crane briefly lived in an apartment overlooking the bridge that, he later learned, once housedWashington Roebling, the Brooklyn Bridge’s builder and son of its architect, John A. Roebling.

The bridge has been shown in films such as Annie HallGangs of New YorkKate & LeopoldIt Happened in BrooklynI Am LegendThe Dark Knight Rises, and The Avengers. It has also been prominently featured in various television series, especially those set in New York City such as CSI: NY.

A bronze plaque is attached to one of the bridge’s anchorages, which was constructed on a piece of property occupied by a mansion, the Osgood House, at 1 Cherry Street in Manhattan. It served as the first Presidential Mansion, housing George Washington, his family, and household staff from April 23, 1789 to February 23, 1790, during the two-year period when New York City was the national capital. Its owner, Samuel Osgood, was a Massachusetts politician and lawyer, who married Maria Bowne Franklin, widow of Walter Franklin, the New York merchant who built it in 1770.[71] Washington moved in a week before his 1789 inauguration as first President of the United States. In addition to living quarters, the Osgood House contained the President’s private office and the public business office, making it the first seat of the executive branch of the federal government.

Love locks of the Brooklyn Bridge

Love locks” is a practice by which a couple inscribe a date and their initials onto a lock, attach it to the bridge and throw the key into the water as a sign of their “everlasting love”. Although the origin of the practice is unknown, it is more popular in Europe where 22 countries have at least one city with a similar location. It has reportedly caused damage to certain bridges, and is officially against New York city rules. The love locks are occasionally removed from the Brooklyn Bridge.[72]

Heritage Walk In Tribeca & On Brooklyn Bridge

Download PDF

 My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Tribeca

Stop 47: A Floating Synagogue

49 White Street

 Tribeca

49 White Street

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40.718266°N 74.007819°W

Tribeca map crop.png

Textile Building (1901) in the Tribeca Historic District

Tribeca, sometimes written as TriBeCa, and pronounced /trˈbɛkə/, is a neighborhood in Lower ManhattanNew York City. Its name is an acronym from “Triangle Below Canal Street”. The “triangle”, which is actually closer to a trapezoid, is bounded by Canal StreetWest StreetBroadway, and Vesey Street.[1] The neighborhood is home to the Tribeca Film Festival.

*******************************

Stop 46: Brooklyn Bridge

Brooklyn Bridge

IMG_6227

 

On the bridge

Plaques on the bridge

On the Brooklyn side at Dumbo

 

Brooklyn Bridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf.jpg

The Brooklyn Bridge, viewed from Manhattan
Carries Motor vehicles (cars only)
Elevated trains (until 1944)
Streetcars (until 1950)
Pedestrians and bicycles
Crosses East River
Locale New York City (ManhattanBrooklyn)
Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation
Designer John Augustus Roebling
Design Suspension/Cable-stay Hybrid
Total length 5,989 feet (1825 m)[1]
Width 85 feet (26 m)
Height 276.5 ft (84.3 m) above mean high water[2]
Longest span 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m)
Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mid-span
Opened May 24, 1883; 131 years ago[3]
Toll Free both ways
Daily traffic 123,781 (2008)[4]
Coordinates 40.70569°N 73.99639°WCoordinates40.70569°N 73.99639°W
Brooklyn Bridge
Pont de Brooklyn de nuit - Octobre 2008 edit.jpg
Built 1883
Architectural style neo-Gothic
NRHP Reference # 66000523
Significant dates
Added to NRHP 1966[5]
Designated NHL January 29, 1964[6]

The Brooklyn Bridge is a bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River. It has a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m), and was the first steel-wire suspension bridge constructed.

Originally referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and as the East River Bridge, it was dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge, a name from an earlier January 25, 1867, letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle,[7] and formally so named by the city government in 1915. Since its opening, it has become an icon of New York City, and was designated a National Historic Landmarkin 1964[6][8][9] and a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972.[10]

Construction

John Augustus Roebling

The Brooklyn Bridge was initially designed by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling, who had previously designed and constructed shorter suspension bridges, such as Roebling’s Delaware Aqueduct in Lackawaxen, PennsylvaniaWaco Suspension Bridge in Waco, Texas, and the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge in Cincinnati, Ohio.

While conducting surveys for the bridge project, Roebling sustained a crush injury to his foot when a ferry pinned it against a piling. After amputation of his crushed toes he developed a tetanus infection which left him incapacitated and soon resulted in his death, not long after he had placed his 32-year-old son Washington Roebling in charge of the project.[11] Washington Roebling also suffered a paralyzing injury as a result ofdecompression sickness shortly after the beginning of construction on January 3, 1870.[12] This condition, first called “caisson disease” by the project physician Andrew Smith, afflicted many of the workers working within the caissons.[13][14] Roebling’s debilitating condition left him unable to physically supervise the construction firsthand.

Roebling conducted the entire construction from his apartment with a view of the work, designing and redesigning caissons and other equipment. He was aided by his wife Emily Warren Roebling who provided the critical written link between her husband and the engineers on site.[15] Under her husband’s guidance, Emily studied highermathematics, the calculations of catenary curves, the strengths of materials, bridge specifications, and the intricacies of cable construction.[16][17][18] She spent the next 11 years assisting Washington Roebling, helping to supervise the bridge’s construction.

When iron probes underneath the caisson for the Manhattan tower found the bedrock to be even deeper than expected, Roebling halted construction due to the increased risk of decompression sickness. He later deemed the aggregate overlying the bedrock 30 feet (9 m) below it to be firm enough to support the tower base, and construction continued.[19]

The towers are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement. The granite blocks were quarried and shaped on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, under a contract with the Bodwell Granite Company, and delivered from Maine to New York by schooner.[20]

Opening

The Brooklyn Bridge was opened for use on May 24, 1883. The opening ceremony was attended by several thousand people and many ships were present in the East Bay for the occasion. President Chester A. Arthur and Mayor Franklin Edson crossed the bridge to celebratory cannon fire and were greeted by Brooklyn Mayor Seth Low when they reached the Brooklyn-side tower. Arthur shook hands with Washington Roebling at the latter’s home, after the ceremony. Roebling was unable to attend the ceremony (and in fact rarely visited the site again), but held a celebratory banquet at his house on the day of the bridge opening. Further festivity included the performance of a band, gunfire from ships, and a fireworks display.[21]

File:New Brooklyn to New York via Brooklyn Bridge, no. 2, by Thomas A. Edison, Inc.ogv

Edison film, “New Brooklyn to New York Via Brooklyn Bridge”, 1899

On that first day, a total of 1,800 vehicles and 150,300 people crossed what was then the only land passage between Manhattan and Brooklyn. Emily Warren Roebling was the first to cross the bridge. The bridge’s main span over the East River is 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m). The bridge cost $15.5 million[clarification needed] to build and an estimated number of 27 people died during its construction.[22]

On May 30, 1883, six days after the opening, a rumor that the Bridge was going to collapse caused a stampede, which was responsible for at least twelve people being crushed and killed.[23] On May 17, 1884, P. T. Barnum helped to squelch doubts about the bridge’s stability—while publicizing his famous circus—when one of his most famous attractions, Jumbo, led a parade of 21 elephants over the Brooklyn Bridge.[24][25][26][27]

Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867

Tablet signage on the Manhattan-side tower of the Brooklyn Bridge

At the time it opened, and for several years, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world—50% longer than any previously built—and it has become a treasured landmark. Since the 1980s, it has been floodlit at night to highlight its architectural features. The architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. The paint scheme of the bridge is “Brooklyn Bridge Tan” and “Silver”, although it has been argued that the original paint was “Rawlins Red“.[28] At the time the bridge was built, the aerodynamics of bridge building had not been worked out. Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950s, well after the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge (Galloping Gertie) in 1940. It is therefore fortunate that the open truss structure supporting the deck is by its nature less subject to aerodynamic problems. Roebling designed a bridge and truss system that was six times as strong as he thought it needed to be. Because of this, the Brooklyn Bridge is still standing when many of the bridges built around the same time have vanished into history and been replaced. This is also in spite of the substitution of inferior quality wire in the cabling supplied by the contractor J. Lloyd Haigh—by the time it was discovered, it was too late to replace the cabling that had already been constructed. Roebling determined that the poorer wire would leave the bridge four rather than six times as strong as necessary, so it was eventually allowed to stand, with the addition of 250 cables. Diagonal cables were installed from the towers to the deck, intended to stiffen the bridge. They turned out to be unnecessary, but were kept for their distinctive beauty.

After the collapse in 2007 of the I-35W highway bridge in the city of Minneapolis, increased public attention has been brought to bear on the condition of bridges across the US, and it has been reported that the Brooklyn Bridge approach ramps received a rating of “poor” at its last inspection.[29] According to a NYC Department of Transportation spokesman, “The poor rating it received does not mean it is unsafe. Poor means there are some components that have to be rehabilitated.” A $508 million[clarification needed] project to replace the approaches began in 2010 and is scheduled to run until 2014.[30] As part of this project, two approach ramps will be widened from one lane to two, and clearance over the Brooklyn Queens Expressway will be increased.[31]

The bridge was built with numerous passageways and compartments in its anchorage. One compartment on the Manhattan side was famously used to store champagne and wine for a local dealer because of the consistent temperatures the space provided.[32]

The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is detailed in the 1972 book The Great Bridge by David McCullough[15] and Brooklyn Bridge(1981), the first PBS documentary film ever made by Ken Burns.[33] Burns drew heavily on McCullough’s book for the film and used him as narrator.[34] It is also described in Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a BBC docudrama series with accompanying book.

Pedestrian and vehicular access

Map of NYC dated 1885, two years after completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, showing street approaches to the bridge as they were

Cross section diagram (looking toward Manhattan)

The bridge originally carried horse-drawn and rail traffic, with a separate elevated walkway along the centerline for pedestrians and bicycles. Since 1950, the main roadway has carried six lanes of automobile traffic. Due to the roadway’s height (11 ft (3.4 m) posted) and weight (6,000 lb (2,700 kg) posted) restrictions, commercial vehicles and buses are prohibited from using this bridge. The two inside traffic lanes once carried elevated trains of the BMT from Brooklyn points to a terminal at Park Row via Sands StreetStreetcars ran on what are now the two center lanes (shared with other traffic) until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks. In 1950 the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was rebuilt to carry six lanes of automobile traffic.

The Brooklyn Bridge is accessible from the Brooklyn entrances of Tillary/Adams Streets, Sands/Pearl Streets, and Exit 28B of the eastbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. In Manhattan, motor cars can enter from either direction of the FDR DrivePark Row,Chambers/Centre Streets, and Pearl/Frankfort Streets. Pedestrian access to the bridge from the Brooklyn side is from either Tillary/Adams Streets (in between the vehicular entrance/exit), or a staircase on Prospect Sreet. between Cadman Plaza East and West. In Manhattan, the pedestrian walkway is accessible from the end of Centre Street, or through the unpaid south staircase of Brooklyn Bridge – City Hall / Chambers Street subway station complex.

View from the pedestrian walkway. The bridge’s cable arrangement forms a distinctive weblike pattern.

The Brooklyn Bridge has a wide pedestrian walkway open to walkers and cyclists, in the center of the bridge and higher than the automobile lanes. In 1971, a center line was painted to separate cyclists from pedestrians, creating one of the City’s first dedicated bike lanes.[35] More than 4,000 pedestrians and 3,100 cyclists cross the Brooklyn Bridge each day.[36] While the bridge has always permitted the passage of pedestrians across its span, its role in allowing thousands to cross takes on a special importance in times of difficulty when usual means of crossing the East River have become unavailable.

During transit strikes by the Transport Workers Union in 1980 and 2005, the bridge was used by people commuting to work, with Mayors Koch and Bloomberg crossing the bridge as a gesture to the affected public.[37][38]

Following the 19651977 and 2003 blackouts and most famously after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, the bridge was used by people leaving Manhattan after subway service was suspended. During the 2003 event, many crossing the bridge reported a swaying motion.[39] This swaying was caused by a much higher pedestrian load than usual, coupled with the tendency of pedestrians to synchronize their footfalls with a sway, amplifying the motion.[40] Several engineers expressed concern about how this would affect the bridge, although others noted that the bridge did withstand the event, and that the redundancies in its design—the inclusion of the three cable systems: suspension system, diagonal stay system, and stiffening truss—make it “probably the best secured bridge against such movements going out of control.”[39] The bridge’s designer, John Roebling, had claimed, long before, that due to such redundancies, the bridge would sag, yet not fall, even if one of these structural systems were to fail altogether.[15]

Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, c. 1883

Notable events

  • In 1919, Giorgio Pessi piloted what was then one of the world’s largest airplanes, the Caproni Ca.5, under the bridge.[41]
  • The centennial celebrations on May 24, 1983, saw a cavalcade of cars crossing the bridge, led by President Ronald Reagan. A flotilla of ships visited the harbor, parades were held, and in the evening the sky over the bridge was illuminated by Grucci Fireworks.[42] The Brooklyn Museum exhibited a selection of the original drawings made for the bridge’s construction, some by Washington Roebling himself. Media coverage of the centennial was declared “the public relations triumph of 1983” by Inc.[43]
  • In June 1993, following 13 reconnoiters inside the metal structure, and with the help of a mountain guide, Thierry Devaux performed (illegally) eight acrobatic bungee jumps above the East River close to the Brooklyn-side pier, in the early morning. He used an electric winch between each acrobatic figure.[44]
  • On March 1, 1994, Lebanese-born Rashid Baz opened fire on a van carrying members of the Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox JewishMovement, striking 16-year-old student Ari Halberstam and three others traveling on the bridge.[45] Halberstam died five days later from his wounds. Baz was apparently acting out of revenge for the Hebron massacre of 29 Muslims by Baruch Goldstein that had taken place days earlier on February 25, 1994. Baz was convicted of murder and sentenced to a 141-year prison term. After initially classifying the murder as one committed out of road rage, the Justice Department reclassified the case in 2000 as a terrorist attack. The entrance ramp to the bridge on the Manhattan side was named the Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp in memory of the victim.[46]
  • In 2003, truck driver Iyman Faris was sentenced to about 20 years in prison for providing material support to Al-Qaeda, after an earlier plot to destroy the bridge by cutting through its support wires with blowtorches was thwarted through information the National Security Agency uncovered through wiretapped phone conversations and interrogation of Al-Qaeda militants.[47]
  • In 2006, a Cold War-era bunker was found by city workers near the East River shoreline of Manhattan’s Lower East Side. The bunker, hidden within the masonry anchorage, still contained the emergency supplies that were being stored for a potential nuclear attack by the Soviet Union.[48]
  • Beginning on May 22, 2008, festivities were held over a five-day period to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge. The events kicked off with a live performance of the Brooklyn Philharmonic in Empire–Fulton Ferry State Park, followed by special lighting of the bridge’s towers and a fireworks display.[49] Other events held during the 125th anniversary celebrations, which coincided with the Memorial Day weekend, included a film series, historical walking tours, information tents, a series of lectures and readings, a bicycle tour of Brooklyn, a miniature golf course featuring Brooklyn icons, and other musical and dance performances.[50] Just before the anniversary celebrations, the Telectroscope, which created a video link between New York and London, was installed on the Brooklyn side of the bridge. The installation lasted for a few weeks and permitted viewers in New York to see people looking into a matching telectroscope in front of London’s Tower Bridge.[51] A newly renovated pedestrian connection toDUMBO was also unveiled before the anniversary celebrations.[52]
  • On October 1, 2011, more than 700 protesters with the Occupy Wall Street movement were arrested while attempting to march across the bridge on the roadway.[53]
  • Early in the morning on July 22, 2014, the two American flags attached to poles atop each tower were found to have been replaced by American flags that had been bleached white. It is believed that several individuals covered the lights that illuminate the flags, then climbed the cables to the top of the two bridge towers. No motivation had yet been confirmed for this incident, but it had been suggested that the white flags were meant to symbolize surrender.[54][55][56] Evidence including surveillance footage and DNA taken from the bridge was reviewed,[57][58] and by August 1, 2014, up to nine “persons of interest” had been found, with a possible motive being marijuana activism.[59] However, on August 12, 2014, two Berlin artists claimed responsibility for hoisting the two white flags, causing the security panic and investigation by New York police. Mischa Leinkauf and Matthias Wermke said the flags were meant to celebrate “the beauty of public space” and the anniversary of the death of German-born John Roebling, who designed the famous bridge. The artists say they hand-sewed the two flags into all-white replicas of an American flag and had the original flags ready to return. “This was not an anti-American statement,” Wermke said.[60][61][62]

Notable jumpers

The first person to jump from the bridge was Robert Emmet Odlum, brother of women’s rights activist Charlotte Odlum Smith, on May 19, 1885.[63][64] He struck the water at an angle and died shortly thereafter from internal injuries.[65] Steve Brodie was the most famous jumper, or self-proclaimed jumper (in 1886). Cartoonist Otto Eppers jumped and survived in 1910, and was then tried and acquitted for attempted suicide.[66]

Cultural significance

“Bird’s-Eye View of the Great New York and Brooklyn Bridge and Grand Display of Fire Works on Opening Night”

Contemporaries marveled at what technology was capable of and the bridge became a symbol of the optimism of the time. John Perry Barlow wrote in the late 20th century of the “literal and genuinely religious leap of faith” embodied in the Brooklyn Bridge … “the Brooklyn Bridge required of its builders faith in their ability to control technology.”[67]

The Cuban poet José Martí wrote an article named “The Bridge of Brooklyn” for the magazine La América, published in June 1883, shortly after the bridge opened to the public.[68] The article was published in his book “Escenas norteamericanas”.[69] In the article, Martí made comparisons between certain animals (like snakes) and the structure of the bridge.[citation needed]

References to “selling the Brooklyn Bridge” abound in American culture, sometimes as examples of rural gullibility but more often in connection with an idea that strains credulity. For example, “If you believe that, I’ve got a bridge to sell you.” George C. Parker and William McCloundy are two early 20th-century con-men who had (allegedly) successfully perpetrated this scam on unwitting tourists.[70] The 1949Bugs Bunny cartoon Bowery Bugs is a joking reference to Bugs “selling” a story of the Brooklyn Bridge to a naïve tourist.

The Modernist American poet Hart Crane used the Brooklyn Bridge as a central metaphor and organizing structure for his second and most important book of poetry, The Bridge. This book takes the form of a long poem spanning eight parts, beginning with an ode (“Proem: To Brooklyn Bridge”) and ending with a transfigured vision of the bridge as the unifying symbol of America (“Atlantis”). Crane briefly lived in an apartment overlooking the bridge that, he later learned, once housedWashington Roebling, the Brooklyn Bridge’s builder and son of its architect, John A. Roebling.

The bridge has been shown in films such as Annie HallGangs of New YorkKate & LeopoldIt Happened in BrooklynI Am LegendThe Dark Knight Rises, and The Avengers. It has also been prominently featured in various television series, especially those set in New York City such as CSI: NY.

A bronze plaque is attached to one of the bridge’s anchorages, which was constructed on a piece of property occupied by a mansion, the Osgood House, at 1 Cherry Street in Manhattan. It served as the first Presidential Mansion, housing George Washington, his family, and household staff from April 23, 1789 to February 23, 1790, during the two-year period when New York City was the national capital. Its owner, Samuel Osgood, was a Massachusetts politician and lawyer, who married Maria Bowne Franklin, widow of Walter Franklin, the New York merchant who built it in 1770.[71] Washington moved in a week before his 1789 inauguration as first President of the United States. In addition to living quarters, the Osgood House contained the President’s private office and the public business office, making it the first seat of the executive branch of the federal government.

Love locks of the Brooklyn Bridge

Love locks” is a practice by which a couple inscribe a date and their initials onto a lock, attach it to the bridge and throw the key into the water as a sign of their “everlasting love”. Although the origin of the practice is unknown, it is more popular in Europe where 22 countries have at least one city with a similar location. It has reportedly caused damage to certain bridges, and is officially against New York city rules. The love locks are occasionally removed from the Brooklyn Bridge.[72]

Heritage Walk in New York – Jewish Harlem

Download PDF

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

My photos are mostly in the form of slideshows with some Wikipedia providing further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Harlem

Some street scenes

The Apollo Theatre

From Oscar Israelowitz’s book:

Jewish Harlem

Stop 153: Temple Ansche Chesed (Former)

1881 Seventh Avenue at 114th Street

Ansche Chesed

1881 Seventh Ave 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ansche Chesed jeh.jpg

Ansche Chesed is a synagogue on the Upper West Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

History

The congregation was founded in 1828 by a group of GermanDutch and Polish Jews who split off from Congregation B’nai Jeshurun.[1] By the time the congregation erected the building on Norfolk Street on Manhattan’s Lower East Side that is now the Angel Orensanz Center in 1850, there had been further secessions and the congregation was composed of immigrants from Germany. It was also the largest in the United States.[2] In the 1870s, the congregation merged with Temple Emanu-El, but by 1881 the more traditional German Jews of Ansche Chesed had reformed, been joined by newer immigrants, and were meeting in Yorkville at Lexington Avenue and 113th Street.[1]

In 1908, the congregation was part of the movement of upper-middle-class New Yorkers to the newly fashionable neighborhood of Harlem. The congregation opened a handsome, brick, Greek revival Temple at Seventh Avenue and 114th Street.

In 1928, the congregation again followed fashion, from Harlem to the even newer Upper West Side of Manhattan, opening its present Byzantine revival building at West End Avenue and 100th Street. The architect was Edward I. Shire.[3]

Contemporary

Ansche Chesed is an egalitarian, participatory Conservative synagogue.[4] In addition to its historic sanctuary, the congregation has a multi-story building with many classrooms and several event spaces. This makes it possible for multiple activities to take place in the building throughout the week, as well as for several minyanim to meet within the congregation. The minyanim include:

  • Sanctuary Service
  • Minyan Ma’at
  • Minyan Rimonim[5]
  • West Side Minyan

Ansche Chesed’s Sanctuary Service is the minyan that directly continues the historical congregation of Ansche Chesed; its name derives from the fact that it holds its services in the synagogue’s sanctuary. This service follows the traditional Conservative liturgy (including full Torah reading and Haftarah and Musaf service). Rabbi Jeremy Kalmanofsky[6] delivers Divrei Torah (comments and explanations on the weekly Torah portion) several times a month and offers weekly comments on various aspects of the service. Cantor Natasha J. Hirschhorn[7] leads the sung portion of the service, and is also Ansche Chesed’s music director. Lay members of the congregation also participate actively in all facets of the service.

Ansche Chesed runs a Hebrew School, with classes that begin in pre-school and continue through the teen years.[8] The synagogue also runs an array of other educational initiatives, focused on adult learning, literature, and family programs. A Social Action Committee oversees a series of community outreach and support programs, including the hosting of a homeless shelter, local park clean-up activities, and programs focused on topics such as the environment. Ansche Chesed hosts several unaffiliated nursery schools, including Purple Circle, Yaldaynu Preschool, and Discovery Programs.

 

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Stop 154: Temple Israel of Harlem (Former)

Lenox Avenue & 12oth Street

Screen Shot 2014-08-23 at 3.52.15 pm

 

Temple Israel of the City of New York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Temple Israel
Basic information
Location 112 East 75th Street,
ManhattanNew York,
 United States
Geographic coordinates 40.77276°N 73.961519°WCoordinates40.77276°N 73.961519°W
Affiliation Reform Judaism
Status Active
Leadership Senior Rabbi: David J. Gelfand
Rabbi Educator: Alan Londy
Assistant Rabbi: Sara Sapadin
Cantor: Robert P. Abelson
Assistant Cantor: Sheila Nesis[1][2]
Website templeisraelnyc.org
Architectural description
Architect(s) Peter Claman
(Schuman & Lichtenstein)[3]
Architectural style Brutalist[3]
Groundbreaking 1964[3]
Completed 1967[3]

Temple Israel (formally Temple Israel of the City of New York) is a Reform congregation in Manhattan. It was incorporated in 1873[4] byGerman Jews.[5]

It purchased its first synagogue building Fifth Avenue and 125th Street in 1887, constructed its own at 201 Lenox Avenue and 120th Street in 1907,[6] and constructed another at 210 West 91st Street in 1920.[3] Its current Brutalist style building, at 112 East 75th Street on the Upper East Side, was completed in 1967.[3]

Since its founding, Temple Israel has been served by only five senior rabbis: Maurice Harris (1882–1930), William Rosenblum (1930–1963), Martin Zion (1963–1991), Judith Lewis (1991–2006), and David Gelfand (2006–). As of 2010, its senior rabbi is Gelfand, and itscantor is Robert P. Abelson.[5]

Early history

Temple Israel was incorporated in 1873[4] as Yod b’Yod (“Hand in Hand”) congregation[3][6] by German Jews.[5] An early trustee was Cyrus L. Sulzberger, father of New York Times publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger.[3] The members were typically shopkeepers, traditionally observant, and first worshiped above a printing shop on East 125th Street in Harlem.[6] They soon established a Hebrew school called “Gates of Learning” for the 45 children of the congregation.[6] The congregation rented a larger space on 124th Street in 1874, and in 1876 leased a former church on 116th Street,[6] between First Avenue and Second Avenue.[5] In 1880, the congregation purchased the building on 116th Street.[6]

Temple Israel was initially lay-led, but in 1882 appointed Maurice Harris as the congregation’s rabbi; at the time, he was still a student at Columbia College, Columbia University, and at Emanu-El Theological Seminary.[5][6] In 1884, his installation was made official.[6]

First buildings

In 1887, the congregation purchased a building at Fifth Avenue and 125th Street, and the following year re-dedicated it as their synagogue.[6] Designed by John W. Welch, the building had been formerly owned by the Holy Trinity Church, and was constructed in 1869–1870.[3] In 1888 the congregation also re-organized, changing its name to Temple Israel of Harlem.[3][6] In 1898, the congregation celebrated its 25 year anniversary and 10 years in its current home.

The congregation constructed its own synagogue building at 201 Lenox Avenue, at 120th Street, in 1907.[3][6] The limestone[5] building was not designed in the typical Moorish Revivalstyle of other synagogues of the time; the designer, Arnold Brunner, argued that “synagogues have no traditional lines of architectural expression”.[7] According to David W. Dunlap, the building “looks like a Roman temple until you notice the Stars of David in the column capitalsfanlights, and spandrel panels”,[7] and “may rank as the single best Neoclassicalsynagogue in Manhattan”.[3] Temple Israel joined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (now Union for Reform Judaism) in 1909,[6] and a few years later[8] merged with Shaarey Borocho (or Shaaray Beracha), a synagogue of Alsatian Jews.[3][6]

Moves to West 91st Street and East 75th Street

In 1920, the members moved to a new Neoclassical building at 210 West 91st Street, designed by William Tachau;[3] the old building on Lenox Avenue was sold to the Seventh-Day Adventist Temple, which in turn sold it in 1925 to the Mount Olivet Baptist Church.[7] Temple Israel elected its first woman trustee in 1921,[5] dedicated its new building in 1922, and in 1924 officially changed its name to Temple Israel of the City of New York.[6] By 1929, membership exceeded 950.[6]

William Franklin Rosenblum succeeded Harris as Temple Israel’s second rabbi in 1930, and Harris died just a few months later that year.[5][6] The congregation was active during theGreat Depression, and supported Jewish education programs for poor children of the neighborhood.[6] Temple Israel actively supported the war effort during World War II,[6] and afterward Rosenblum opposed the creation of Israel.[5]

Rosenblum retired in 1963, and Martin Zion succeeded him that year as Temple Israel’s third rabbi.[9] At the time, the congregation’s trustees had decided to relocate the synagogue from the Upper West Side to the Upper East Side of Manhattan,[5] and in 1964 began construction of a new building at Temple Israel’s current location, 112 East 75th Street.[3]Designed by architect Peter Claman of Schuman & Lichtenstein, the Brutalist structure was completed in 1967. The previous building on West 91st Street was sold to the Young Israel of the West Side congregation, who still occupy it.[3]

Events since 1980

Robert Abelson became leader of the congregation’s music program in 1980.[5] In 1985, Judith Lewis became Temple Israel’s Director of Education, and in 1991 she succeeded Zion as the synagogue’s fourth senior rabbi. By 1995, membership was over four hundred families.[9]

David Gelfand succeeded Lewis, becoming Temple Israel’s fifth Senior Rabbi in 2006.[5] That same year Alan Londy joined the synagogue as Rabbi Educator.[10] Sheila Nesis,[11] a native of Buenos AiresArgentina, served as Assistant Cantor from 2007 – 2012 before relocating to Phoenix, AZ. Sarah Sapadin joined the clergy as Assistant Rabbi in 2008, serving until 2013. As of 2010, the Senior Rabbi is David Gelfand, the Rabbi Educator is Alan Londy, the assistant rabbi is Sarah Sapadin, the Cantor is Robert Abelson, and the Assistant Cantor is Sheila Nesis.[5]

 

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Stop 155: Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation

One West 123rd Street

Harlem 123rd

 

Commandment Keepers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Commandment Keepers Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation of the Living God Pillar & Ground of Truth, Inc. are a sect of Black Hebrews, founded in 1919 by Wentworth Arthur Matthew,[1] who believe that people of Ethiopian descent represent one of the lost tribes of Israel.[1] They claim King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba as their ancestors, and believe the biblical patriarchs to have been black.[2]

Rabbi Wentworth Arthur Matthew holding aTorah scroll.

The mother congregation of the movement has since 1962 been located at 1 West 123rd Street in HarlemNew York City. Most of its members are Afro-Caribbean but it has always had diverse visitors and occasionally white members. They use the De Sola Pool Spanish and Portuguese prayerbook, the Hertz Chumash, parchmentTorah scrolls, and offer standard orthodox Sephardi style Sabbath and Jewish Holy Day services.

The congregation is featured in a scene from the 1970 motion picture The Angel Levine[3] which starred Harry Belafonte and Zero Mostel. On June 12, 1971 Rabbi W.A. Matthew ordained three individuals as rabbis, his grandson Rabbi David Matthew Doré, Rabbi Jonah McCullough, and Rabbi Willie White. In 1973, Matthew died, creating an internal conflict over who would be the new leader. David Matthew Doré, who was 18 years old at the time, was named by Rabbi Matthew as spiritual leader of the congregation just before Matthew’s death. In 1975, the board of the congregation elected Willie White to be the new leader and without congregational approval shortened the name to Commandment Keepers Congregation. Doré continued to host services at the synagogue until the early 1980s, when White began locking people out. Doré at this time was working as a lawyer, but states that he often tried to enter the synagogue. Throughout the 1990s membership was declining. In 2004, Zechariah ben Lewi became the rabbi for the Commandment Keepers, and membership has dropped to eight people, with over two hundred actual members locked out of the temple. A lawsuit was filed against Doré that year for wrongfully claiming himself to be the spiritual leader of the congregation. The court ruled against Doré.[4] The ruling was overturned on July 9, 2007.[5] The board proceeded to sell the building at 1 West 123rd Street. Doré, as attorney for Commandment Keepers Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation of the Living God Pillar and Ground of Truth, Inc., filed a lawsuit against the board for selling the historic landmark, and in October 2007 a court vacated the sale and ordered a trial.[6] As of 2011, Doré’s suit against the buyer and the individual who claimed authority to sell the historic landmark was pending.[7] The named defendants submitted motions to dismiss the action, Doré, as counsel for the congregation, filed opposition papers and both motions were denied. Defendants then appealed to the Appellate Division First Department. After oral argument the Appellate Division, in a unanimous decision issued June 4, 2013, denied defendants appeal to dismiss the case and affirmed the ruling of the lower court that denied defendants motion to dismiss.[8] The case is on the trial calendar for April 2, 2014 before Justice Richard F. Braun.

The congregation will be profiled in a documentary film currently under development, which will be released in the near future.[9]

 

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Stop 156: Fire Tower

Above Mount Morris Park

Harlem Fire Watchtower

Fire Bell

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Harlem Fire Watchtower
Harlem-firetower.jpg
Location Marcus Garvey Park, East 122 Street, Manhattan,New York CityNew York
Built 1855-1857
Architect Julius H. Kroehl
Governing body New York City
NRHP Reference # 80002692[1]
Added to NRHP June 21, 1976

Harlem Fire Watchtower in 1857 in Mount Morris Park

The Harlem Fire Watchtower, also known as the Mount Morris Fire Watchtower, is the only surviving one of eleven cast-ironwatchtowers placed throughout New York City starting in the 1850s.[2] It was built by Julius H. Kroehl for $2,300 based on a design byJames Bogardus. It is located in Marcus Garvey Park in Manhattan.

The Mount Morris Park tower went into service in 1857 in response to Harlem residents’ demand. The towers gave volunteers a perch from which to watch for fires that were common in the wooden structures that then made up much of New York City, and the watchers then spread the word via bell ringing. Later, electric telegraphs were installed but the bell provided local alarms.

When pull boxes and other technological advances rendered the fire watchtowers obsolete, the system was discontinued and the other towers eventually were destroyed. Harlem’s, protected in the middle of a park, endured.

Relic

During the New Deal, the area surrounding the Watchtower was rebuilt by government employees as part of the Works Project Administration jobs program. This project created a gracious plaza (sometimes called “the Acropolis”), stone retaining wall, and wide steps approaching the summit from several sides for pedestrians.

The tower was designated a city landmark in 1967 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. The last work on the watchtower came in 1994, but cracks in the overall structure and in the bell remain. The granite parapet along the top is in need of restoration.

Weather, lack of maintenance and neglect have taken their toll over the years. Roof damage allowed water into the structure rusting structural members. The original copper roof deteriorated and has fallen off, exposing the interior to more damage. Many of the internal steps are missing and park visitors may no longer climb them or get near the structure which is protected by a fence. Two community groups have collaborated in 2013 to raise $4 million to restore the Harlem Watchtower: Mount Morris Park Community Improvement Association [3] and the Marcus Garvey Park Alliance.[4]

Starting in late spring 2014, the New York City Parks Department will disassemble the tower to restore the structure and ensure its soundness and stability before reconstruction.

 

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Stop 157: Congregation Shaare Zedek Of Harlem (Former)

23 West 118th Street

Shaare Zedek

DSC_1769

Congregation Shaare Zedek (New York City)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Congregation Shaare Zedek
Shaare Zedek 212 W93 jeh.jpg

Sanctuary main entrance
Basic information
Location 212 West 93rd Street,
ManhattanNew York,
 United States
Affiliation Conservative Judaism
Status Active
Leadership Rabbi: William Plevan
Website www.sznyc.org
Architectural description
Architect(s) Somerfeld and Steckler
Architectural style Classical Revival
Groundbreaking 1922
Completed 1923
Materials Granite
For other places with the same name, see Shaare Zedek (disambiguation).

Congregation Shaare Zedek (Gates of righteousness) is a Conservative synagogue located on West 93rd Street in Manhattan.

History

Founded in 1837, by Polish Jews, Shaare Zedek is the third oldest Jewish congregation in New York City. The congregation originally met at 38 Henry Street on Manhattan’s Lower East Side. In 1850, it purchased a building at 38 Henry Street (still on the Lower East Side) that was originally built by a Quaker congregation in 1828 that had been converted for use as a synagogue by congregationAnsche Chesed in 1840.[1] The congregation replaced this building with a new building on the same property in 1891 and in 1900 opened a branch synagogue at 25 West 118th Street in the newly fashionable neighborhood of Harlem.[2] The building is now a church. The Henry Street building was sold to Congregation Mishkan Israel Anshei Suwalk in 1911.

Shaare Zedek’s present, elaborate, Neoclassical building was designed by the architecture firm of Sommerfeld and Steckler and built in 1922-1923.

Over the years, Shaare Zedek has been home to some of the country’s great rabbis including Philip R. AlstatIsrael Goldfarb, and Isaac Kurtzlow along with such esteemed cantors as Frank Birnbaum and Martin Kozlowsky. Since 2009, the congregation has been led by Rabbi William Plevan. Although Shaare Zedek was the last Conservative synagogue in the area to allow fully egalitarian worship, women now participate in every aspect of the service and the congregation was recently served by a female rabbi. While preserving the traditional liturgy quite closely and committing to a fairly strict observance of Jewish law, the community is generally politically and socially progressive.

 

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Stop 158: Congregation Ohab Zedek (Former)

18 West 116th Street

Ohab Zedek

Congregation Ohab Zedek

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ohab Zedek)

Ohab Zedek, sometimes abbreviated as OZ, is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in Manhattan, New York City noted for its lively, youthful congregation.[1] Founded in 1873, it moved to it current location on West 95th Street in 1926. The current clergy are: Rabbi Allen Schwartz, Senior Rabbi; and Rabbi Avrohom Moshe Farber, Cantor.

Early history

Congregation Ohab Zedek (abbreviated O.Z., and formally known as the First Hungarian Congregation Ohab Zedek), was founded in 1873 on the Lower East Side. The congregation built a synagogue building at 70 Columbia Street in 1881. In 1886 the congregation sold the Columbia Street building to Congregation Ahavath Acheim Anshe Ungarn and moved into the gothic-style synagogue building 172 Norfolk Street that is now the Angel Orensanz Center, the oldest surviving synagogue building in New York and the fourth-oldest in the United States.[2]

116th Street building

General information
Architectural style Vernacular Gothic on the interface of Moorish Revival
Construction started 1906
Completed 1907
Demolished 2009–2010
Client Congregation Ohab Zedek
Technical details
Structural system Masonry

In 1906–07 the congregation built and moved into a “monumental” building on 116th Street, in the newly fashionable neighborhood of Harlem. The “monumental” design was influenced by the Gothic character of the previous Norfolk Street home. The street-facing gable prominently featured a large four-centered arch-headed window over a large pedimented doorcase, appearing styled in loose or Vernacular Gothic on the interface of Moorish Revival architecture.

The famous singer Yossele Rosenblatt was a cantor there from 1911 to 1926, and again in 1929.[3]

In 1926 O.Z. moved to its present building at 118 West 95th Street; the 116th Street property was sold, eventually becoming the Baptist Temple Church, which occupied the location for over five decades. Conversion into a church removed the Jewish-themed terracotta ornaments.

Costly structural damage necessitated the building’s demolition, which occurred slowly throughout late 2009 and early 2010.

Current building, West 95th Street

118 W 95

The current synagogue building at 118 West 95th Street (constructed in 1926) is noted for its Moorish Revival architecture. Designed by architect Charles B. Myers, the interior features magnificent Mudéjar style plasterwork.

Early today 21st century

Early in the 21st century, the congregation became known for attracting large numbers of orthodox Jewish singles to its services and programs.[1] The congregation published a book in 2005 about its history, First Hungarian Congregation Ohab Zedek, written by O.Z. member Chaim Steinberger.

As of 2013, the senior rabbi was Allen Schwartz and the cantor was Rabbi Avrohom Moshe Farber.

 

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Stop 159: Institutional Institiute (Former)

112 West 116th Street

112 W 116

Herbert S. Goldstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Herbert S. Goldstein (February 8, 1890 – January 1970), was a prominent American rabbi and Jewish leader.

He was the only person in history to have been elected president of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, the Rabbinical Council of America (first presidium), and the Synagogue Council of America.[1]

Globally, he fought for the survival and transplantation of European Jewry as an activist in the Vaad Hatzalah and the Agudath Israel.

Early life

Goldstein and his family were members of Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, where he had his Bar Mitzvah, and met his future father-in-law and renowned Jewish leader Harry Fischel.[2]

He attended Etz Chaim YeshivaTownsend Harris High School, and Columbia University (B.A.M.A.). He also graduated as valedictorian at the (then-more-traditional) Jewish Theological Seminary. He received rabbinic ordination both from Rabbi Shalom Elchanan Jaffe of Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, and from the Jewish Theological Seminary.[3]

Leadership roles

Fights for Jewish rights

He led many fights for Jewish rights, beginning with the fight to expose unscrupulous fraudulent “kosher” butchers, and their powerful backers; fought for the rights of the downtrodden, in many social settings and political arenas, including the successful fight for a historic Minimal Wage Law.

West Side Institutional Synagogue

Institutional Synagogue

As the founder of the original Institutional Synagogue in 1917, he was one of the creators of the Jewish Community Center idea, certainly within an Orthodox Jewish setting, where prayer was a major component. The synagogue services came first, and then came the gymnasium and theOlympic-size swimming pool. The Institutional Synagogue, in its prime, served approximately 3000 people a day, and had a roster of 67 clubs. As the founder of the successor West Side Institutional Synagogue, he led one of the most influential Orthodox synagogues in the country during its most influential years.

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Old Broadway Synagogue

15 Old Broadway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Old Broadway Synagogue
Old Broadway Synagogue sun jeh.jpg
Old Broadway Synagogue
Location 15 Old Broadway, New YorkNew York
Coordinates 40°48′55″N73°57′27″WCoordinates40°48′55″N 73°57′27″W
Area 0.1 acres (0.040 ha)
Built 1922
Architect Meisner & Uffner
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 01001440[1]
Added to NRHP January 11, 2002

Old Broadway Synagogue is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in Harlem, New York City incorporated in 1911 under the name Chevra Talmud Torah Anshei Marovi, by an immigrant named Morris Schiff, (Torah Study Society, People of the West Side [of Harlem]) Schiff was a polish immigrant who lived in the Harlem area, an area with a high Jewish population at the time. The temple located at 15 Old Broadway (a rare vestige on Manhattan island of the Bloomingdale Road), the Old Broadway Synagogue is a “vernacular” style synagogue built in 1923 by the architectural firm of Meisner & Uffner. The congregation formed from the mostly Ashkenazic Jewish population of Russian and Polish immigrants to New York during the 1880s who had made their way up to Central Harlem, then migrated to blocks west. The members initially met in storefronts and purportedly in the back room of a bar until the congregation purchased a house on Old Broadway. This structure was torn down shortly thereafter to make way for the synagogue. The congregation had an active Talmud Torah (Hebrew school) probably from its founding until the 1960s or 1970s. Among its early rabbis were the author Simon Glazer and Shepard Brodie. The building is listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Synagogue is perhaps best known today for its late rabbi, Jacob Kret, a former rosh yeshiva (head of a rabbinic academy) in Bialystokand later Ostrow Mazowiecka, Poland. After the division of Poland between Germany and USSR, Rabbi Kret was arrested by the Soviet authorities while attempting to bring his students to relative safety in Lithuania. He was then deported to a Soviet labor camp, and was later released. After the war, Rabbi Kret headed a yeshiva that was in or associated with the Displaced Persons camp in Zeilsheim, a section of Frankfurt. By the time Rabbi Kret became the spiritual leader of the Old Broadway Synagogue in 1950, many of the founding families had moved away. Rabbi Kret recruited Holocaust survivors who were moving to New York at that time to settle in the vicinity of the synagogue. These survivors, many of whom came from Polish Hasidic backgrounds, helped fill the synagogue in the 1950s and 1960s. By the time most of these had moved away, in the 1970s and 1980s, Rabbi Kret had become a mashgiach (kosher food supervisor) in the nearbyBarnard College dining hall as well as a Talmud tutor at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America students. As such Rabbi Kret had a deep influence on many Columbia University, Barnard College and Jewish Theological Seminary students until he retired from the Synagogue in November 1997. He died in February 2007.

Since 2000, the Synagogue has attracted young people who live in Harlem and Washington Heights, as well as from Morningside Heights and the Upper West Side. The Synagogue offers a weekly class on Pirkei Avot (Ethics of the Fathers), a section of the Talmud containing ethical maxims.

Dr. Paul Radensky, Museum Educator for Jewish Schools for the Museum of Jewish Heritage – A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, is the current president of the congregation and has overseen fundraising and renovations for the Synagogue.

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Heritage Walk in New York – Upper West Side

Download PDF

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

Edited Wikipedia provides further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Upper West Side

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Upper West Side and Central Park as seen from the Rockefeller Center Observatory. In the distance is the Hudson River and George Washington Bridge.

The Upper West Side is a neighborhood in the borough of ManhattanNew York City, that lies between Central Park and theHudson River and between West 59th Street and West 116th Street. The Upper West Side is sometimes also considered by the real estate industry to include the neighborhood of Morningside Heights.[1]

Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an upscale, primarily residential area with many of its residents working in more commercial areas in Midtown and Lower Manhattan. It has the reputation of being home to New York City’s cultural, intellectual hub (with Columbia University located at the north end of the neighborhood), and artistic workers (with Lincoln Center located at the south end), while the Upper East Side is traditionally perceived to be home to commercial and business types.[2]

The neighborhood is also referred to for short as just the “UWS”.[3]

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Stop 131: Richard Tucker Memorial Park

Broadway & 66th Street

Richard Tucker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tucker speaks with Mario Lanza (right), who was a great fan of Tucker’s,[1] in 1958 after Tucker’s Covent Garden debut. That was the only time that they met.[2]

Richard Tucker (August 28, 1913 – January 8, 1975) was an American operatic tenor

Early life

Tucker was born Rivn (Rubin) Ticker in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Bessarabian Jewish parents, who immigrated to the US in 1911.[3][4][5][6] His father, Sruel (Sam) Ticker, and mother Fanya-Tsipa (Fanny) Ticker had already adopted the surname “Tucker” by the time their son entered first grade. His musical aptitude was discovered early, and was nurtured under the tutelage of Samuel Weisser at the Tifereth Israel synagogue in lower Manhattan. As a teenager, Tucker’s interests alternated between athletics, at which he excelled during his high-school years, and singing for weddings and bar mitzvahs as a cantorial student. Eventually, he progressed from a part-time cantor at Temple Emanuel in Passaic, New Jersey, to full-time cantorships at Temple Adath Israel in the Bronx and, in June 1943, at the large and prestigious Brooklyn Jewish Center. Until then, Tucker’s income derived mainly from his weekly commissions as a salesman for the Reliable Silk Company, in Manhattan’s garment district.

On February 11, 1936, Tucker married Sara Perelmuth, the youngest child (and only daughter) of Levi and Anna Perelmuth, proprietors of the Grand Mansion, a kosher banquet hall in Manhattan’s Lower East Side. At the time of Tucker’s wedding to their daughter, the Perelmuths’ musically gifted eldest son, Yakob, had progressed from a part-time jazz violinist andlyric tenor vocalist to a national radio star who had already set his sights on an operatic career. Under the management of Sol Hurok, the eldest of the Perelmuth offspring, now renamed Jan Peerce, reached his goal when the general manager of the Metropolitan Opera CompanyEdward Johnson, offered him a contract after an impressive audition. When Peerce made his much-acclaimed debut at the Met on November 29, 1941, his sister and her new husband were living with Peerce’s parents while Tucker was trying to make a success as the sole proprietor (and only employee) of a silk-lining sales business while also officiating at Temple Adath Israel in the Bronx.[7]

As the Duke in Rigoletto, 1971.

Although Tucker’s well-crafted public image was that of a competitive, overwhelmingly self-confident performer, his offstage demeanor was that of an inherently private but unfailingly considerate man, especially where fans and colleagues were concerned. Never prone to looking back upon his career, Tucker always lived in the moment and maintained a boyish outlook on life.[attribution needed] He also displayed a propensity for playing pranks on some of his fellow singers, often provoking a smile at some inappropriate moment in a performance. Once, during a broadcast of La forza del destino with baritone Robert Merrill, Tucker sneaked a nude photograph into a small trunk that Merrill opened onstage. In later years, Merrill described his tenor friend as “an original, right out of the pages of a Damon Runyon story.”[13]

Ironically, Tucker was touring with Merrill in a national series of joint concerts when, on January 8, 1975, he died of a heart attack while resting before an evening performance inKalamazoo, Michigan. He is the only person whose funeral has been held on the stage of the Metropolitan Opera. In tribute to his legacy at the Met, the city of New York designated the park adjacent to Lincoln Center as Richard Tucker Square.

Legacy

Richard Tucker monument in Lincoln Square

Shortly after his death, the Richard Tucker Music Foundation was established by his widow, sons, colleagues, and friends, “to perpetuate the memory of America’s greatest tenor through projects in aid of gifted young singers.” In the intervening decades, the Richard Tucker Foundation, whose annual televised concerts have been hosted by Luciano Pavarotti and other opera stars of the past and present, has consistently awarded the largest vocal-music grants and scholarships. Recipients include sopranos Renée FlemingDeborah Voigt, tenors Richard Leech, Stephen Costello, James Valenti and other opera singers of international renown.

A street corner near Lincoln Center is named for him.

Audio examples

 

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Stop 132: Holocaust Survivors’ Synagogue

44 West 66th Street

Congregation Habonim was founded in 1939 by a group of refugees from Nazi Germany. Was originally Reform, but since 1997 it has followed the Conservative movement.

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Stop 133: Hebrew Arts School

129 West 67th Street

Merkin Concert Hall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Merkin Concert Hall

Merkin Concert Hall is a 449-seat concert hall in ManhattanNew York City. The hall, named in honor of Hermann and Ursula Merkin, is part of the Kaufman Music Center, a complex that includes the Lucy Moses School, a community arts school, and the Special Music School (P.S. 859), a New York City public school for musically gifted children. Merkin Concert Hall hosts 70,000 [1] concert goers a year.

Overview

Merkin Concert Hall opened in Kaufman Music Center’s (then The Hebrew Art School’s) Abraham Goodman House in 1978, and soon after distinguished itself as an important New York City venue, featuring innovative classical and new music programming (it is the recipient of three awards in Adventurous Programming by ASCAP/Chamber Music America).[2]Located in the Lincoln Square neighborhood, it is near the Lincoln Center campus but is not affiliated with it. Merkin Hall hosts over 200 concerts a year, many of them Kaufman Music Center presentations. It has several long-running series, presenting established and emerging artists, as well as Broadway and Family focused shows. Beginning in 1986, Kaufman Music Center has co-presented New Sounds Live with WNYC, hosted by John Schaefer and broadcast live on the radio. In 2003, New York Festival of Song began its series of co-presentations at Merkin Hall as well. WQXR-FM‘s online webcast Q2 began live streaming of Kaufman Music Center’s Ecstatic Music Festival in 2011.

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Stop 134: Oldest Congregation in North America

Congregation Shearith Israel

8 West 70th Street

Congregation Shearith Israel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Congregation Shearith Israel at Central Park West

The synagogue’s third cemetery (1829–1851) is on West 21st Street near the Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue)

Congregation Shearith Israel, often called The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, is the oldest Jewish congregation in the United States. It was established in 1654.[1]

The Orthodox synagogue is located on Central Park West at 70th Street on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. The congregation’s current Neoclassical building was occupied in 1897.[2]

Founding and synagogue buildings

The first group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews arrived in New York (New Amsterdam) in September 1654. After being initially rebuffed by anti-Semitic Governor Peter Stuyvesant, Jews were given official permission to settle in the colony in 1655. This marks the founding of the Congregation Shearith Israel. Despite their permission to stay in New Amsterdam they continued to face discrimination and were not given permission to worship in a public synagogue for some time (throughout the Dutch period and even into the British). The Congregation did, however, make arrangements for a cemetery beginning in 1656. It was not until 1730 that the Congregation was able to build a synagogue of its own; it was built on Mill Street in lower Manhattan. Before 1730, as is evidenced from a map of New York from 1695, the congregation worshipped in rented quarters on Beaver Street and subsequently on Mill Street. Since 1730 the Congregation has worshipped in five synagogues:

  • Mill Street, 1730
  • Mill Street re-built and expanded, 1818
  • Crosby Street, 1834
  • 19th Street, 1860
  • West 70th Street, 1897 (present building.)

Birthing of major Jewish institutions

As the American Reform Judaism made headway and changes on the synagogue scene in the late 19th century, many rabbis critical of the Reform movement looked for ways to strengthen traditional synagogues. Shearith Israel, and its rabbi, Henry Pereira Mendes, was at the fore of these efforts. Rabbi Mendes cofounded the American Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) in 1886, in order to train traditional rabbis. Shearith Israel was the first home to the school. In JTS’s earliest days, it taught and researched rabbinics similarly to traditional yeshivas, in contrast to the Reform Hebrew Union College. It is not certain whether at the time JTS hewed very closely to existing yeshiva-style, but significant deviations would be out of character with Shearith Israel and Rabbi Mendes.

Twelve years later, in 1896, Mendes was acting president of JTS, and promoted the formation[3] of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (commonly known as theOU), a synagogue umbrella group that provided an alternative to the Reform movement’s Union of Hebrew Congregations of America.

As JTS grew, it needed better financing and a full-time head. The seminary moved to its own building, and Mendes was replaced by Solomon Schechter. However, Schechter developed a less traditional ideology, which became the basis for Conservative Judaism (also known as Masorti). The split was not great initially, and there was a great deal of cooperation in the Orthodox and Conservative camps but, over time, the divide became clearer, and Schechter formed the United Synagogue of America (now the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, or USCJ)[4] to promote synagogue affiliation with his conservative-but-unorthodox ideology. Shearith Israel stayed in the Orthodox camp, eventually repudiating its association with its offspring, JTS.

In a sense, then, Shearith Israel was the birthplace of three of the largest and most significant Jewish religious organizations in America: JTS, the OU, and USCJ. Shearith Israel remains a member of one of the three: the Orthodox Union.

Landmark plaques

Portuguese
The outside

The lobby

The Little Synagogue

The Main Synagogue

With  Rabbi Shalom Morris and Oscar Israelowitz

Portuguese 1

Portuguese copy

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West Side Institutional Synagogue

Screen Shot 2014-08-21 at 10.12.18 pm

 

 

IMG_6449

 

 

West Side

The outside

Inside

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Stop 137: Oldest Ashkenazi Congregation

257 West 88th Street

Congregation B’nai Jeshurun

B’nai Jeshurun (Manhattan)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Congregation B’nai Jeshurun Synagogue and Community House
Congregtion-banai-nyc.jpg
Congregation B’Nai, March 2009
Location 257 W. 88th St. and 270 W. 89th St., New York, New York
Coordinates 40°47′24″N73°58′35″WCoordinates40°47′24″N 73°58′35″W
Area 0.9 acres (0.36 ha)
Built 1917
Architect Schneider,Walter S.; Et al.
Architectural style Late 19th And Early 20th Century American Movements, Semitic Revival
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 89000474[1]
Added to NRHP June 2, 1989

Front door

B’nai Jeshurun is a synagogue in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City.

History

Founded in 1825, Bnai Jeshurun was the second synagogue founded in New York and the third-oldest Ashkenazi synagogue in the United States.

The synagogue was founded by a coalition of young members of congregation Shearith Israel and immigrants and the descendants of immigrants from the German and Polish lands. It was the stated intention to follow the “German and Polish minhag (rite).”[2] The order of prayers followed that of the Ashkenazi Great Synagogue of London and sought the guidance of the British chief Rabbi Solomon Hirschellon matters of ritual. The congregation dedicated its first building on Elm Street in Manhattan in 1827.

The first rabbi, Samuel Isaacs, was appointed in 1839. By 1850, the congregation had grown large enough to make it necessary to build a new synagogue on Green Street.

In 1865, the congregation moved yet again, to a new building on 34th Street, the parcel later part of the site of the flagship Macy’s store. Driven by the rapid expansion of the city, they moved yet again in 1885 to Madison Avenue at 65th Street. That building was designed byRafael Guastavino and Schwarzmann & Buchman.

The present building, located at 257 West 88th Street between Broadway and West End Avenue was dedicated in 1917. It was designed byHenry B. Herts, a congregant and celebrated theater architect, with Walter S. Schneider.[3] In addition to its place on the National Register of Historic Places, the synagogue was included in the New York City Riverside Drive-West End Historic District created in 1990. Themuqarna-studded ceiling was redesigned following its collapse during renovations in the early 1990s and was replaced with a future-invoking space frame back-lit to simulate a nighttime sky [2].

Breakaway congregations

B’nai Jeshurun’s original founders broke from the city’s only synagogue, Shearith Israel, in 1825, in order to create an Ashkenazi congregation. Subsequently, B’nai Jeshurun members broke away to form new shuls several times.

In 1828, at a time of rapid growth in the New York Jewish community, a group left B’nai Jeshurun to found Ansche Chesed.[4]

In 1845, Temple Shaaray Tefila was founded by 50 primarily English and Dutch Jews who had been members of B’nai Jeshurun.[5][6]

Affiliation

B’nai Jeshurun took a leading role in founding the Board of Directors of American Israelites in 1859. When the Board of Delegates merged with the (Reform) Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1878 the congregation went along, but in 1884 it left the Reform Movement. Two years later, it also supported the founding of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS) in 1886, a school formed to support Orthodoxy in combating the Reform movement.

In 1889, the congregation published its own edition of the prayer book.

When Solomon Schechter used JTS to create a more conservative set of reforms to traditional Judaism, B’nai Jeshurun joined his United Synagogue of America, now the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism.

In the 1990s the congregation left the Conservative movement and is now independent.

Contemporary

A spiritual and demographic renaissance began in 1985, with the arrival of Rabbi Marshall Meyer.

Notable clergy

BJ

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Stop 138: Jewish Theological Seminary

3080 Broadway

Jewish Theological Seminary of America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jewish Theological Seminary of America
JTSA building at 3080 Broadway in Manhattan

JTSA building at 3080 Broadway in Manhattan
Motto והסנה איננו אכל
Motto in English And the bush was not consumed – Exodus 3:2
Established 1886
Type Private
Religious affiliation Conservative Judaism
Chancellor Arnold Eisen
Provost Alan Cooper
Vice-Chancellor Marilyn Kohn
Location New York CityNew YorkUnited States
40°48′43″N 73°57′37″WCoordinates40°48′43″N 73°57′37″W
Campus Urban
Facebook JTS on Facebook
Website www.jtsa.edu

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS or JTSA) is located in New York. It is one of the academic and spiritual centers ofConservative Judaism, and a major center for academic scholarship in Jewish studies.

JTS operates five schools: Albert A. List College of Jewish Studies (which is affiliated with Columbia University and offers joint/double bachelors degree programs with both Columbia and Barnard College); The Graduate School; the William Davidson Graduate School of Jewish Education; the H. L. Miller Cantorial School and College of Jewish Music; and The Rabbinical School. It also operates a number of research and training institutes.

 

Screen Shot 2014-08-21 at 9.48.37 pm

 

Heritage Walk in New York – Midtown West

Download PDF

My walking trail of Jewish Manhattan

using Oscar Israelowitz’s book, Jewish Heritage Trail of New York as my guide. With Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

Edited Wikipedia provides further info.

Some American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

Midtown Manhattan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The eastern portion of Midtown Manhattan, including northeastward view of the prominentChrysler Building from the Empire State Building.

Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, represents the middle portion of the borough and island of Manhattan in New York City, as noted along the long axis of the island. Midtown is home to some of the city’s most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the United Nations Headquarters, and it contains world-famous commercial zones such as Rockefeller CenterBroadway, and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan separates Lower Manhattan from Upper Manhattan.

Location

Geographically, Midtown is commonly defined as the area south of 59th Street, east of the Hudson River, west of the East River, and though its southern border is less clear, generally it is taken to be 34th Street, although some would include neighborhoods as far downtown as 23rd Street or even 14th Street.

A panoramic view of Midtown Manhattan as seen from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey (2011)

A panoramic view of Midtown Manhattan during midday, taken from the Empire State Building

View of the Midtown Manhattan skyline, looking north from the Empire State Building

Midtown West

Stops 124 & 125: Historic Jewish Cemeteries

Sixth Avenue at 11th Street & at 21st Street

From Jewish Heritage Trail of New York by Oscar Israelowitz:

JHTrail

Beth Haim Cemetery on 11th Street

 Beth Haim Shlishi on 21st Street

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Stops 126: Macy’s Department Store

Herald Square, 34th Street

 Macy’s was the site of Congregation B’nai Jeshurun’s third location. BJ established in 1825, is the second oldest congregation in NY and the oldest Ashkenazi community.

Macy’s was founded by Isidor Straus. He and his wife, Judith, died in the sinking of the Titanic on 15 April 1912.

Isidor Straus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Isidor Straus
Isidor Straus 1903.jpg
Born February 6, 1845
Otterberg, Germany
Died April 15, 1912 (aged 67)
RMS Titanic (sunk), Atlantic Ocean
Other names Isadore Strauss
Ethnicity Jewish German-American
Occupation Co-owner of Macy’s department store
Spouse(s) Rosalie Ida Blun (m. 1871–1912)
Children Jesse Isidor Straus
Clarence Elias Straus
Percy Seldon Straus
Sara (Straus) Hess
Minnie (Straus) Weil
Hebert Nathan Straus
Vivian (Straus) Dixon

Isidor Straus (February 6, 1845 – April 15, 1912) was a German-born American businessman and co-owner of Macy’s department store with his brother Nathan. He also served briefly as a member of the United States House of Representatives.[1] He died with his wife, Ida, in the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Titanic.

Early life

Isidor Straus was born in Otterberg in Kaiserslautern county in the Pfalz, Germany. He was the first of five children of Lazarus Straus (1809–1898) and his second wife Sara (1823–1876). His siblings were Hermine (1846–1922), Nathan (1848–1931), Jakob Otto (1849–1851) and Oscar Solomon Straus (1850–1926). In 1854 he and his family immigrated to the United States, following his father Lazarus who immigrated two years before. They settled in Talbotton, Georgia, where Lazarus had convinced Rowland Hussey Macy to allow L. Straus & Sons to open a crockery department in the basement of his store.

Later life

In 1871, Isidor Straus married Rosalie Ida Blun (1849–1912). They were parents to seven children (one of whom died in infancy):

  • Jesse Isidor Straus (1872–1936) who married Irma Nathan (1877–1970), and served as U.S. Ambassador to France, 1933–1936
  • Clarence Elias Straus (1874–1876) who died in infancy
  • Percy Selden Straus (1876–1944) who married Edith Abraham (1882–1957)
  • Sara Straus (1878–1960) who married Dr. Alfred Fabian Hess (1875–1933)
  • Minnie Straus (1880–1940) who married Richard Weil (1876–1918)
  • Herbert Nathan Straus (1881–1933) who married Therese Kuhn (1884–1977)
  • Vivian Straus (1886–1974) first married Herbert Adolph Scheftel (1875–1914) and second, in 1917, married George A. Dixon, Jr. (1891–1956)

Isidor and Ida were a devoted couple, writing to each other every day when they were apart.

He served as a U.S. Congressman from January 30, 1894, to March 3, 1895, as a Democratic representative to New York’s 15th congressional district. By 1896, Isidor and his brother Nathan had gained full ownership of R. H. Macy & Co.[2] Also, Straus was president of The Educational Alliance and a prominent worker in charitable and educational movements, very much interested in civil service reform and the general extension of education. He declined the office of Postmaster General which was offered him by U.S. President Grover Cleveland.[3]

Death on the Titanic

The gravesite of Isidor Straus inWoodlawn Cemetery

Traveling back from a winter in Europe, mostly spent at Cap Martin in southern France, Isidor and his wife were passengers on the RMSTitanic when, on the night of April 14, 1912, it hit an iceberg. Once it was clear Titanic was sinking, Ida refused to leave Isidor and would not get into a lifeboat without him. Although Isidor was offered a seat in a lifeboat to accompany Ida, he refused seating while there were still women and children aboard and refused to be made an exception. According to friend and Titanic survivor Colonel Archibald Gracie IV, upon seeing that Ida was refusing to leave her husband, he offered to ask a deck officer if Isidor and Ida could both enter a lifeboat together. Isidor was reported to have told Colonel Gracie in a firm tone: “I will not go before the other men”. Ida insisted her newly hired English maid, Ellen Bird, get into lifeboat #8. She gave Ellen her fur coat stating she would not be needing it. Ida is reported to have said, “I will not be separated from my husband. As we have lived, so will we die, together.” Isidor and Ida were last seen on deck arm in arm. Eyewitnesses described the scene as a “most remarkable exhibition of love and devotion.” Both died on April 15 when the ship sank at 2:20 am. Isidor Straus’ body was recovered by the cable ship Mackay-Bennett and brought to Halifax, Nova Scotia where it was identified before being shipped to New York. He was first buried in the Straus-Kohns Mausoleum at Beth-El Cemetery in Brooklyn. His body was moved to the Straus Mausoleum in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx in 1928. Ida’s body was never found. Isidor and Ida are memorialized on a cenotaph outside the mausoleum with a quote from the Song of Solomon (8:7): “Many waters cannot quench love – neither can the floods drown it.”[4]

Memorials

Isidor and Ida Straus, sacrifices of the ship Titanic – Yiddish Penny Song

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B&H Photo Video

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40°45′11″N 73°59′47″W

B&H Photo & Electronics Corp.
Type Retail
Industry Retail
Founded 1973 New York, New York
Headquarters New York City (Manhattan)
Number of locations 1
Products Cameras, video, film, audio, computers, electronics
Website bhphotovideo.com

B&H Photo Video, founded in 1973 and located at 420 Ninth Avenue on the corner of West 34th Street in ManhattanNew York City, is the largest non-chain photo and video equipment store in the United States.[1]

Overview

B&H Photo Video on 34th Street

The business is owned by Herman Schreiber. Schreiber and many of the store’s employees are observant SatmarHasidic Jews who close the store on Shabbat and Jewish holidays except for Hanukkah (Jewish law does not prohibit work during that holiday, except during Shabbat itself). The Web site remains open, but orders are not taken or shipped between Friday evening and Saturday evening and on Jewish holidays.[2][3] Surpassed only by the Diamond District in terms of Orthodox employment, the company is a vital part of the community’s financial health, with hundreds of Orthodox Jews on staff. An Orthodox Jewish bus company provides daily service to and from Kiryas Joel, a Satmar village in Orange County, New York.[4][5]The store is patronized by professional photographers and videographers, serving over 5,000 customers per day, while a greater amount of the company’s business comes from its internet operation and corporate sales. It also runs a warehouse in the Brooklyn Navy Yard located in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.[1] On its website, B&H claims to be the “world’s leading retailer of imaging products.” The store carries a wide range of products across the electronics spectrum, with emphasis on professional and specialty photographic equipment.

In 2007, Google announced that they added B&H as a merchant accepting Google Checkout. When discussing their third-quarter financial results on an October 18, 2007 conference call, Sergey Brin, president and co-founder of Google, said that B&H is his favorite camera store.[6]

The store is also somewhat known for its extensive conveyor belt system that runs along the ceiling [7]

History

B&H opened as a storefront film shop on Warren street, in the area known as Tribeca, run by Herman Schreiber and his wife, Blimie (the store’s name comes from their initials). The store quickly outgrew its space. B&H moved to a large loft on West 17th Street in the Photo District in the 1970s. Catering to the needs of neighborhood artists, B&H expanded to selling film equipment as well as photo products. In 1997, the store moved to its present location. It now has a staff of over 1,500 employees.[8] B&H’s flagship store is located in West Midtown Manhattan (also known as “Hell’s Kitchen”) at 420 Ninth Avenue (at the intersection with 34th Street). On Tuesday October 30, 2007, B&H opened a second floor above its original sales floor making a total of 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2) of sales space. The first floor encompasses professional lighting, binoculars and scopes, video, audio, darkroom, film and both home and portable entertainment; the second floor focuses on both conventional as well as digital photography, computers, printers, scanners and related accessories.[1][not in citation given]

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Congregation Beth Israel West Side Jewish Center

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
West Side Jewish Center
West Side Jewish Center jeh.JPG
Basic information
Location 347 West 34th Street,
ManhattanNew York,
 United States[1]
Geographic coordinates 40.75302°N 73.995388°WCoordinates40.75302°N 73.995388°W
Affiliation Orthodox Judaism
Status Active
Leadership Rabbi: Jason Herman[2]
Website westsidejewishcenter.org
Architectural description
Architect(s) Gronenberg & Leuchtag[3]
Groundbreaking 1924[3]
Completed 1925[3]

Congregation Beth Israel West Side Jewish Center is an Orthodox congregation located at 347 West 34th Street,ManhattanNew York, in the Garment District,[1] near Penn Station.[3] Established in 1890, it constructed its current building in 1924–1925.[3] Rabbis have included Joseph Schick,[4] Norman Lamm,[5] and Solomon Kahane.[6] As of 2010, the rabbi was Jason Herman.[2]

Early history

Congregation Beth Israel West Side Jewish Center was established in 1890[7] by Orthodox German Jews and Jews fromAustria-Hungary.[8] In its early years the congregation worshiped at 252 West 35th Street,[8][9] a building later purchased by St. Paul Baptist Church.[3]

In 1905, the congregation constructed a new synagogue building at 252 West 35th Street, designed by architect John H. Knubel.[3] Its sanctuary sat 600.[8] In 1924, it broke ground for its current three-story building at 347 West 34th Street. Designed by Gronenberg & Leuchtag, it was completed in 1925.[3]

Dr. Joseph Schick became rabbi in 1926.[4] Born in Ónod in Austria-Hungary in 1892, he served as a chaplain in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I, and was the rabbi of Budapest’s Beth Israel synagogue of 1918 to 1922, then emigrated to the United States. His books The Kaddish: Its Power for Good and Joseph’s Harvest were published in 1928 and 1932 respectively.[10] He served until his death in 1938, at age 49.[4]

Schick was succeeded in 1939 by Harry M. Katzen[11] and then William Novack,[12] and then in 1940 by Leo Ginsburg.[13]

1950s to 2000

In 1952, Norman Lamm, later president of Yeshiva University for over 25 years, was appointed to the role.[5] He would serve until 1958, before moving to the (unrelated) Upper West Side Jewish Center.[14]

Billboard for the film Angels & Demons on the side of the synagogue building

Solomon (Shlomo) Kahane, ordained in 1954 at Yeshiva University, was subsequently rabbi of the congregation for 38 years; he died in April, 2004.[6][15] He was a first cousin of Rabbi Meir Kahane, the founder of the Jewish Defense Leagueand the Israeli political party Kach. The Jewish Defense League’s first meeting was held at the West Side Jewish Center on June 18, 1968.[16][17]

Events since 2000

Kahane was succeeded by Dr. Richard Weiss.[18] A licensed physician, Weiss subsequently became rabbi of Young Israel of Hillcrest inQueens.[19]

The synagogue was in the news in 2007. The congregation rents the entire side of its building for advertisements, and that year it was covered with a huge billboard for the film Resident Evil: Extinction. The image did not offend any members, according to then-rabbi Jason Herman, and the congregation found the additional income generated by the billboard helpful for maintaining the building.[20]

As of 2010, the rabbi was Jason Herman. A former investment banker, Herman received his rabbinic ordination at Yeshivat Chovevei Torah. He was also Executive Director of the International Rabbinic Fellowship and a fellow at Rabbis Without Borders.[2] Known for his activism, he was one of 22 Jewish leaders arrested at the United Nations in 2007 after a protest demanding the removal of Iran from the body.[21] In 2008, he was one of a group of liberal Orthodox rabbis who boycotted kosher meat from Agriprocessors over concerns that the company’s practices were unethical.[22]

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Shop 127: The Garment Center Monument

Garment District, Manhattan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40.7535°N 73.9888°W

Men pulling racks of clothing on busy sidewalk in Garment District (1955)

The Garment District, also known as the Garment Center, the Fashion District, or the Fashion Center, is aneighborhood located in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The dense concentration of fashion-related uses give the neighborhood—which is generally considered to lie between Fifth Avenue and Ninth Avenue, from 34th to 42nd Street—its name. The Garment District has been known since the early 20th century as the center for fashion manufacturing and fashion design in the United States, and even the world.

Less than one square mile in area, the neighborhood is home to the majority of New York’s showrooms and to numerous major fashion labels, and caters to all aspects of the fashion process–from design and production to wholesale selling. No other city has a comparable concentration of fashion businesses and talent in a single district.[1]

Role in fashion

New York City is arguably the fashion capital of the United States. The industry based there generates over $14 billion in annual sales, and sets design trends which are mirrored worldwide.[citation needed] The core of the industry is Manhattan’s Garment District, where the majority of the city’s major fashion labels operate showrooms and execute the fashion process from design and production to wholesaling. No other city has a comparable concentration of fashion businesses and talent in a single district.[1]

Information booth in Garment District withNeedle threading a button sculpture in the background

History

The Garment Worker, bronze byIsraeli sculptor Judith Weller

New York first assumed its role as the center of the nation’s garment industry by producing clothes for slaves working on Southernplantations. It was more efficient for their masters to buy clothes from producers in New York than to have the slaves spend time and labor making the clothing themselves. In addition to supplying clothing for slaves, tailors produced other ready-made garments for sailors and western prospectors during slack periods in their regular business.

Prior to the mid-nineteenth century, the majority of Americans either made their own clothing, or if they were wealthy, purchased “tailor-made” customized clothing. By the 1820s, however, an increasing number of ready-made garments of a higher quality were being produced for a broader market.

The production of ready-made clothing, which continued to grow, completed its transformation to an “industrialized” profession with the invention of the sewing machine in the 1850s.

The need for thousands of ready-made soldiers’ uniforms during the American Civil War helped the garment industry to expand further. By the end of the 1860s, Americans bought most of their clothing rather than making it themselves.

German and Central European immigrants to America around the mid-19th century arrived on the scene with relevant business experience and skills just as garment production was passing from a proto-industrial phase to a more advanced stage of manufacture. In the early twentieth-century a largely Eastern European immigrant workforce powered the garment trades. Writing in 1917, Abraham Cahan credited these immigrants with the creation of American style:

Foreigners ourselves, and mostly unable to speak English, we had Americanized the system of providing clothes for the American woman of moderate or humble means. The average American woman is the best-dressed woman in the world, and the Russian Jew has had a good deal to do with making her one.

With an ample supply of cheap labor and a well-established distribution network, New York was prepared to meet the demand. During the 1870s the value of garments produced in New York increased sixfold. By 1880 New York produced more garments than its four closest urban competitors combined, and in 1900 the value and output of the clothing trade was three times that of the city’s second largest industry, sugar refining. New York’s function as America’s culture and fashion center also helped the garment industry by providing constantly changing styles and new demand; in 1910, 70% of the nation’s women’s clothing and 40% of the men’s was produced in the City.

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Stop 128: The Actors’ Temple

The Actors’ Temple

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Actors’ Temple
Actors-temple-2007.jpg
May 2007
Location 339 W. 47th St., Hell’s KitchenNew York, New York
Coordinates 40.761167°N 73.989139°WCoordinates40.761167°N 73.989139°W
Built 1925
Architect Sydney F. Oppenheimer
Architectural style Classical Revival
Governing body Congregation Ezrath Israel
NRHP Reference # 05000445

[1]Added to NRHPMay 19, 2005

The Actors’ Temple, officially named Congregation Ezrath Israel, is a synagogue founded in 1917 in the Hell’s Kitchenneighborhood of ManhattanNew York City. Located at 339 West 47th Street since 1923, the temple was originally dubbed “The West Side Hebrew Relief Association,”[2] and it was the synagogue of choice for the entertainment industry. Many vaudeville, musical theater, television, and nightclub performers attended services there, including Sophie TuckerShelley WintersMilton BerleAl JolsonJack BennyJoe E. LewisEdward G. Robinson, as well as several of the Three Stooges.[3]

The temple declined after World War II as actors moved to California and the neighborhood changed, going from 300 members to approximately 30 in 2009.[3] In 2005, in order to bring in additional income, the temple started renting out dance rehearsal space toNew Dance Group as well as temporarily transforming into a theatre for plays.[4] However, even with this additional income, the $120,000 annual operating costs used up the $2 million endowment by 2009.[3] Despite these challenges, the temple continues to operate. In fact, the temple had a large fund raising program in 2011. In addition the congregation has grown to 120 dues paying members.[5]

Heritage Walk in New York – Greenwich Village

Download PDF

My posts of New York generally follow the stops in Oscar Israelowitz’s:

Jewish Heritage Trail of New York

Click below for American Jewish music. More on bottom of the right hand side panel  # 1 to 11

 

Using the book as a guide and entering the address provided into Google Maps, I was able to plan and enjoy without wasting time and energy, and so had an amazing experience.

I have used and edited Wikipedia to provide you with background info.

Greenwich Village

Stop 119: Joseph Papp’s  Public Theatre

425 Lafayette Street

Formerly

HIAS

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

HIAS (which stands for Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society) is an American charitable organization originally founded in response to the late 19th- and early 20th-century exodus ofJewish emigrants from Imperial Russia. The organization assists Jews and other groups of people whose lives and freedom are believed to be at risk to relocate. Since its inception HIAS has helped resettle nearly 4.5 million people. HIAS offices throughout the world (United StatesIsrael, the Russian FederationUkraineAustriaArgentina,EcuadorVenezuelaKenyaPanama and Chad) provide an array of legal and support services.

According to HIAS itself, the acronym HIAS was first used as a cable address and eventually became the universally used name of the organization. A 1909 merger with theHebrew Sheltering Aid Society resulted in the official name Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, but the organization continued to be generally known as H.I.A.S.or HIAS,[1][2] which eventually became the official name.

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Stop 120: Hebrew Union College

One West 4th Street

Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion
Established 1875
Type Private
President Rabbi Aaron Panken
Location CincinnatiNew York CityLos AngelesJerusalem
Affiliations Reform Judaism
Website www.huc.edu

The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUCHUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is the oldest extant Jewish seminary in the Americas[1] and the main seminary for training rabbiscantors, educators and communal workers inReform Judaism.

HUC-JIR has campuses in Cincinnati, New York, Los Angeles and Jerusalem.

The Jerusalem campus is the only seminary in Israel for training Reform Jewish clergy

History

HUC was founded in 1875 under the leadership of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise in Cincinnati, Ohio.[2] The first rabbinical class graduated in 1883.[3] The graduation banquet for this class included food that was not kosher, such as clamssoft-shell crabsshrimpfrogs’ legs and dairy products served immediately after meat. This feast was known as thetreifah banquet. At the time, Reform rabbis were split over the question of whether the Jewish dietary restrictions were still applicable. Some of the more traditionalist Reform rabbis thought the banquet menu went too far, and were compelled to find an alternative between Reform Judaism and Orthodox Judaism. This was a major cause of the founding of American Conservative Judaism.[3]

In 1950, a second HUC campus was created in New York City through a merger with the rival Reform Jewish Institute of Religion. Additional campuses were added in Los Angeles, California in 1954, and in Jerusalem in 1963.[4]

As of 2009, the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is an international seminary and university of graduate studies offering a wide variety of academic and professional programs. In addition to its Rabbinical School, the College-Institute includes Schools of Graduate Studies, Education, Jewish Communal Service, sacred music,Biblical archaeology and an Israeli rabbinical program.[5]

The Los Angeles campus operates many of its programs and degrees in cooperation with the neighboring University of Southern California, a partnership that has lasted over 35 years.[6] Their productive relationship includes the creation of the Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement, an interfaith think tank through the partnership of HUC, USC and Omar Foundation. CMJE[7] holds religious text-study programs across Los Angeles. Ironically, no classrooms on this campus have windows.

Rabbi Alfred Gottschalk was appointed as HUC’s sixth president, following the death of Nelson Glueck. As president, Gottschalk oversaw the growth and expansion of the HUC campuses, the ordination of Sally Priesand as the first female rabbi in the United States, the investiture of Reform Judaism’s first female hazzan and the ordination of Naamah Kelman as the first female rabbi in Israel.[8]

Hebrew Union College campus in Jerusalem

HUC Greenwich Village, New York

DSC_3910

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La Guardia Place, Greenwich Village

Fiorello H. La Guardia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello LaGuardia.jpg
99th Mayor of New York City[1]
In office
January 1, 1934 – December 31, 1945
Preceded by John P. O’Brien
Succeeded by William O’Dwyer
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York‘s 20th district
In office
March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1933
Preceded by Isaac Siegel
Succeeded by James J. Lanzetta
10th President of the New York City Board of Aldermen
In office
January 1, 1920 – December 31, 1921
Preceded by Robert L. Moran
Succeeded by Murray Hulbert
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York‘s 14th district
In office
March 4, 1917 – December 31, 1919
Preceded by Michael F. Farley
Succeeded by Nathan D. Perlman
Personal details
Born Fiorello Enrico LaGuardia
December 11, 1882
Greenwich VillageManhattan,New York, United States
Died September 20, 1947 (aged 64)
BronxNew York, United States
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Thea Almerigotti (1919-1921; her death)
Marie Fisher (m. 1929; 2 children)
Profession Politician
Religion Episcopalian
Signature

 

Early life and career

LaGuardia was born in Greenwich Village in New York City to an Italian father and an Italian-Jewish mother. His father, Achille La Guardia, was a lapsed Catholic from Cerignola, and his mother, Irene Coen, was a Jewish woman from Trieste, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; his maternal grandmother Fiorina Luzzatto Coen was a Luzzatto, a member of the prestigious Italian-Jewish family of scholars, kabbalists, and poets and had among her ancestors the famous rabbi Samuel David Luzzatto. It was in Trieste that Achille La Guardia met and married Irene.[6] Fiorello La Guardia was raised an Episcopalian and practised that religion all his life. His middle name “Enrico” was anglicized to “Henry” when he was a child.

He moved to Arizona with his family, where his father had a bandmaster position at Fort Whipple in the U.S. Army. LaGuardia attended public schools and high school inPrescott, Arizona.[7] After his father was discharged from his bandmaster position in 1898, Fiorello lived in Trieste.[8]

La Guardia joined the State Department and served in U.S. consulates in Budapest, Trieste (Austria-Hungary, now Italy), and Fiume (Austria-Hungary), now Rijeka (Croatia), (1901–1906). He returned to the United States to continue his education at New York University. From 1907 to 1910, he worked as an interpreter for the U.S. Bureau of Immigration at the Ellis Island immigration station.

He graduated from New York University School of Law in 1910, was admitted to the bar the same year, and began a law practice in New York City.[7]

Ethnic politics

LaGuardia governed in an uneasy alliance with New York’s Jews and liberal WASPs, together with Italian and German ethnics.[26]

LaGuardia was not an orthodox Republican. He also ran as the nominee of the American Labor Party, a union-dominated anti-Tammany left-wing group that supported Franklin D. Roosevelt for president beginning in 1936. LaGuardia supported Roosevelt, chairing the Committee of Independent Voters for Roosevelt and Wallace with Senator George Norris during the 1940 presidential election.

LaGuardia was the city’s first Italian-American mayor, but was not a typical Italian New Yorker. He was a Republican Episcopalian who had grown up in Arizona, and had a Triestine Jewish mother[6] and a Catholic-turned-atheist father. He reportedly spoke several languages, including HebrewCroatian, German, Italian, and Yiddish.[citation needed]LaGuardia was also a very active Freemason.[citation needed]

Fiorello LaGuardia statue at LaGuardia Placein Greenwich Village, NYC

Germany

He was an outspoken and early critic of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. In a public address in 1934, LaGuardia warned that “part of Hitler’s program is the complete annihilation of the Jews in Germany”. In 1937, speaking before the Women’s Division of the American Jewish Congress, LaGuardia called for the creation of a special pavilion at the upcoming New York World’s Fair, “a chamber of horrors” for “that brown-shirted fanatic”.[30]

Gemma LaGuardia Gluck

LaGuardia’s sister, Gemma LaGuardia Gluck (1881–1962),[31] and brother-in-law, Herman Gluck (a Hungarian Jew whom she met while teaching English in Europe), were living in Hungary and were arrested by the Gestapo on June 7, 1944,[32] when the Nazis took control of BudapestAdolf Eichmann and Heinrich Himmler knew Gemma was Fiorello’s sister and ordered her held as a political prisoner. She and Herman were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria, where he died, as Gemma learned from reading a newspaper account a year following her release.[33][34] She was transferred from Mauthausen to the notorious women’s concentration camp at Ravensbrück, located 50 miles from Berlin, where unbeknownst to Gemma at the time, her daughter Yolanda[31] (whose husband also died in the camps[35]) and baby grandson were also held for a year in a separate barrack.[36] Gemma, who was held in Block II of the camp and assigned prisoner #44139,[32] was one of the few survivors of this camp[37] and wrote about her time at Ravensbrück. [38][39] She also wrote that the Soviets were “violating girls and women of all ages”, and about her, her daughter’s and grandson’s suffering as displaced persons in postwar Berlin, where the Germans abandoned them for a possible hostage exchange in April 1945, as the Russians were advancing. Gemma and her family did not speakGerman, and had no identity papers, money, or means of documenting where they had been. Gemma finally managed to get word to the Americans who contacted Fiorello, who had no idea where they were. He worked to get them on the immigration lists, but asserted in a letter, included in the appendix of Gemma’s memoir, that her “case was the same as that of hundreds of thousands of displaced people” and “no exceptions can be made”. Thus, despite Gemma’s intimate connection with a powerful American politician, who was then director of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), it took two years to be cleared and sent to the United States. She returned to New York in May 1947, where she reunited with Fiorello four months before he died. As he had made no provision for her, she lived in very reduced circumstances, in a LaGuardia public housing project in Queens, New York, until her death in 1962.[31][40] Gluck is believed to be the only American-born woman interned by the Nazis.[citation needed]

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Stop 121: Triangle Fire Site

Washington Place corner Greene Street

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40°43′48″N 73°59′43″W

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Image of Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire on March 25 - 1911.jpg
Time 4:40 PM (local time)
Date March 25, 1911
Location Asch Building
ManhattanNew York CityU.S.
Deaths 146
Injuries 71

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in ManhattanNew York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in U.S. history. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers – 123 women and 23 men [1] – who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths. Most of the victims were recent Jewish and Italian immigrant women aged sixteen to twenty-three;[2][3][4] of the victims whose ages are known, the oldest victim was Providenza Panno at 43, and the youngest were 14-year-olds Kate Leone and “Sara” Rosaria Maltese.[5]

Because the owners had locked the doors to the stairwells and exits, a common practice used to prevent workers from taking unauthorized breaks and pilferage,[6] many of the workers who could not escape the burning building jumped from the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors to the streets below. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshopworkers.

The factory was located in the Asch Building, at 23–29 Washington Place in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, now known as the Brown Building and part of New York University. The building has been designated a National Historic Landmark and a New York City landmark.[7]

Fire

A horse-drawn fire engine en route to the burning factory

The Triangle Waist Company[8] factory occupied the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors of the 10-story Asch Building on the northwest corner of Greene Street and Washington Place, just east of Washington Square Park, in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. Under the ownership of Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, the factory produced women’s blouses, known as “shirtwaists.” The factory normally employed about 500 workers, mostly young immigrant women, who worked nine hours a day on weekdays plus seven hours on Saturdays,[9] earning for their 52 hours of work between $7 and $12 a week,[6] the 2014 equivalent of $166 to $285 a week, or $3.20 to $5.50 per hour.[10]

As the workday was ending on the afternoon of Saturday, March 25, 1911, a fire flared up at approximately 4:40 PM in a scrap bin under one of the cutter’s tables at the northeast corner of the eighth floor.[11] The first fire alarm was sent at 4:45 PM by a passerby on Washington Place who saw smoke coming from the eighth floor.[12] Both owners of the factory were in attendance and had invited their children to the factory on that afternoon.[13] The Fire Marshal concluded that the likely cause of the fire was the disposal of an unextinguished match or cigarette butt in the scrap bin, which held two months’ worth of accumulated cuttings by the time of the fire.[14] Beneath the table in the wooden bin were hundreds of pounds of scraps which were left over from the several thousand shirtwaists that had been cut at that table. The scraps piled up from the last time the bin was emptied, coupled with the hanging fabrics that surrounded it; the steel trim was the only thing that was not highly flammable.[15] Although smoking was banned in the factory, cutters were known to sneak cigarettes, exhaling the smoke through their lapels to avoid detection.[16] A New York Times article suggested that the fire may have been started by the engines running the sewing machines, while The Insurance Monitor, a leading industry journal, suggested that the epidemic of fires among shirtwaist manufacturers was “fairly saturated with moral hazard.”[13] No one suggested arson.[citation needed]

The building’s south side, with windows marked X from which fifty women jumped

The building’s east side, with 40 bodies on the sidewalk. Two of the victims were found alive an hour after the photo was taken.

Within three minutes, the Greene Street stairway became unusable in both directions.[21] Terrified employees crowded onto the single exterior fire escape, which city officials had allowed Asch to erect instead of the required third staircase.[15] It was a flimsy and poorly anchored iron structure which may have been broken before the fire. It soon twisted and collapsed from the heat and overload, spilling about 20 victims nearly 100 feet (30 m) to their deaths on the concrete pavement below. Elevator operators Joseph Zito[22] and Gaspar Mortillalo saved many lives by traveling three times up to the ninth floor for passengers, but Mortillalo was eventually forced to give up when the rails of his elevator buckled under the heat. Some victims pried the elevator doors open and jumped into the empty shaft, trying to slide down the cables or to land on top of the car. The weight and impacts of these bodies warped the elevator car and made it impossible for Zito to make another attempt. William Gunn Shepard, a reporter at the tragedy, would say that “I learned a new sound that day a sound more horrible than description can picture — the thud of a speeding living body on a stone sidewalk “.[23]A bookkeeper on the eighth floor was able to warn employees on the tenth floor via telephone, but there was no audible alarm and no way to contact staff on the ninth floor.[17] According to survivor Yetta Lubitz, the first warning of the fire on the ninth floor arrived at the same time as the fire itself.[18] Although the floor had a number of exits, including two freight elevators, a fire escape, and stairways down to Greene Street and Washington Place, flames prevented workers from descending the Greene Street stairway, and the door to the Washington Place stairway was locked to prevent theft by the workers; the locked doors allowed managers to check the women’s purses.[19] The foreman who held the stairway door key had already escaped by another route.[20] Dozens of employees escaped the fire by going up the Greene Street stairway to the roof. Other survivors were able to jam themselves into the elevators while they continued to operate.[citation needed]

A large crowd of bystanders gathered on the street, witnessing 62 people jumping or falling to their deaths from the burning building.[24] Louis Waldman, later a New York Socialist state assemblyman, described the scene years later:[25]

One Saturday afternoon in March of that year — March 25, to be precise — I was sitting at one of the reading tables in the old Astor Library… It was a raw, unpleasant day and the comfortable reading room seemed a delightful place to spend the remaining few hours until the library closed. I was deeply engrossed in my book when I became aware of fire engines racing past the building. By this time I was sufficiently Americanized to be fascinated by the sound of fire engines. Along with several others in the library, I ran out to see what was happening, and followed crowds of people to the scene of the fire.

A few blocks away, the Asch Building at the corner of Washington Place and Greene Street was ablaze. When we arrived at the scene, the police had thrown up a cordon around the area and the firemen were helplessly fighting the blaze. The eighth, ninth, and tenth stories of the building were now an enormous roaring cornice of flames.

Word had spread through the East Side, by some magic of terror, that the plant of the Triangle Waist Company was on fire and that several hundred workers were trapped. Horrified and helpless, the crowds — I among them — looked up at the burning building, saw girl after girl appear at the reddened windows, pause for a terrified moment, and then leap to the pavement below, to land as mangled, bloody pulp. This went on for what seemed a ghastly eternity. Occasionally a girl who had hesitated too long was licked by pursuing flames and, screaming with clothing and hair ablaze, plunged like a living torch to the street. Life nets held by the firemen were torn by the impact of the falling bodies.

The emotions of the crowd were indescribable. Women were hysterical, scores fainted; men wept as, in paroxysms of frenzy, they hurled themselves against the police lines.

The remainder waited until smoke and fire overcame them. The fire department arrived quickly but was unable to stop the flames, as there were no ladders available that could reach beyond the sixth floor. The fallen bodies and falling victims also made it difficult for the fire department to approach the building.

Bodies of the victims being placed in coffins on the sidewalk

People and horses draped in black walk in procession in memory of the victims

Aftermath

Although early references of the death toll ranged from 141[26] to 148,[27] almost all modern references agree that 146 people died as a result of the fire: 123 women and 23 men.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Most victims died of burns, asphyxiation, blunt impact injuries, or a combination of the three.[35]

The first person to jump was a man, and another man was seen kissing a young woman at the window before they both jumped to their deaths.[36]

Bodies of the victims were taken to Charities Pier (also called Misery Lane), located at 26th street and the East River, for identification by friends and relatives.[citation needed] Victims were interred in sixteen different cemeteries.[28] Twenty-two victims of the fire were buried by the Hebrew Free Burial Association in a special section at Mount Richmond Cemetery. In some instances, their tombstones refer to the fire.[37] Six victims remained unidentified until 2011.[28][29] The six victims who remained unidentified were buried together in the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn. Originally interred elsewhere on the grounds, their remains now lie beneath a monument to the tragedy, a large marble slab featuring a kneeling woman.[38]The six unknown victims were finally identified in February 2011[28] and a grave marker placed in their memory.[39]

Consequences and legacy

The company’s owners, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, who survived the fire by fleeing to the building’s roof when the fire began, were indicted on charges of first- and second-degree manslaughter in mid-April; the pair’s trial began on December 4, 1911.[40] Max Steuer, counsel for the defendants, managed to destroy the credibility of one of the survivors, Kate Alterman, by asking her to repeat her testimony a number of times, which she did without altering key phrases. Steuer argued to the jury that Alterman and possibly other witnesses had memorized their statements, and might even have been told what to say by the prosecutors. The prosecution charged that the owners knew the exit doors were locked at the time in question. The investigation found that the locks were intended to be locked during working hours based on the findings from the fire,[41] but the defense stressed that the prosecution failed to prove that the owners knew that. The jury acquitted the two men, but they lost a subsequent civil suit in 1913 in which plaintiffs won compensation in the amount of $75 per deceased victim. The insurance company paid Blanck and Harris about $60,000 more than the reported losses, or about $400 per casualty. In 1913, Blanck was once again arrested for locking the door in his factory during working hours. He was fined $20.[42]

Rose Schneiderman, a prominent socialist and union activist, gave a speech at the memorial meeting held in the Metropolitan Opera House on April 2, 1911, to an audience largely made up of the members of the Women’s Trade Union League. She used the fire as an argument for factory workers to organize:

Tombstone of fire victim at theHebrew Free Burial Association‘s Mount Richmond Cemetery

I would be a traitor to these poor burned bodies if I came here to talk good fellowship. We have tried you good people of the public and we have found you wanting…. We have tried you citizens; we are trying you now, and you have a couple of dollars for the sorrowing mothers, brothers and sisters by way of a charity gift. But every time the workers come out in the only way they know to protest against conditions which are unbearable, the strong hand of the law is allowed to press down heavily upon us.

Public officials have only words of warning to us—warning that we must be intensely peaceable, and they have the workhouse just back of all their warnings. The strong hand of the law beats us back, when we rise, into the conditions that make life unbearable.

I can’t talk fellowship to you who are gathered here. Too much blood has been spilled. I know from my experience it is up to the working people to save themselves. The only way they can save themselves is by a strong working-class movement.[43]

Others in the community, and in particular in the ILGWU,[44] drew a different lesson from events. In New York City, a Committee on Public Safety was formed, headed by Frances Perkins, a noted social worker, to identify specific problems and lobby for new legislation, such as the bill to grant workers shorter hours in a work week, known as the “54-hour Bill”. The committee’s representatives in Albany obtained the backing of Tammany Hall‘s Al Smith, the Majority Leader of the Assembly, and Robert F. Wagner, the Majority Leader of the Senate, and this collaboration of machine politicians and reformers – also known as “do-gooders” or “goo-goos” – got results, especially since Tammany’s chief, Charles F. Murphy, realized the advantage to be had from being on the side of the angels.[6]

The New York State Legislature then created the Factory Investigating Commission to “investigate factory conditions in this and other cities and to report remedial measures of legislation to prevent hazard or loss of life among employees through fire, unsanitary conditions, and occupational diseases.”[45] The Commission, which became Al Smith’s priority,[6] held public hearings in the major cities of the state, distributed questionnaires to a wide variety of people, and hired field agents to do on-site inspections of factories.[46] New York City’s Fire Chief John Kenlon told the investigators that his department had identified more than 200 factories where conditions made a fire like that at the Triangle Factory possible.[47] The State Commissions’s reports helped modernize the state’s labor laws, making New York State “one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform.”[48][49] New laws mandated better building access and egress, fireproofing requirements, the availability of fire extinguishers, the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, better eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the number of hours that women and children could work.[46] In the years from 1911 to 1913, sixty of the sixty-four new laws recommended by the Commission were legislated with the support of Governor William Sulzer.[6]

As a result of the fire, the American Society of Safety Engineers was founded in New York City on October 14, 1911.[50]

My images:

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 Stop 122: Washington Square Arch

Washington Square Arch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates40.73099°N 73.99805°W

The south face of the Washington Square Arch

The Washington Square Arch — or more properly Washington Arch — is a marble triumphal arch built in 1892 in Washington Square Park in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It celebrates the centennial of George Washington’s inauguration as President of the United States in 1789 and forms the grand southern terminus of Fifth Avenue.

Description

Washington Square Arch, constructed of white Tuckahoe marble (Westchester marble), was modeled by Stanford White on the Arc de Triomphe, built in 1806, in Paris (itself modeled on the Arch of Titus). It stands 77 feet (23 m) high. The piers stand 30 feet (9.1 m) apart and the arch opening is 47 feet (14 m) high. The iconography of the Arch centers on images of war and peace. On the frieze are 13 large stars and 42 small stars interspersed with capital “W’s”. The spandrels contain figures of Victory. The inscription on the attic story reads:

let us raise a standard to which the wise and the honest can repair. the event is in the hand of god.— washington

The north side of the eastern pier bears the sculpture George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, Accompanied by Fame and Valor (1914–16) by Hermon A. MacNeil in which the President is flanked by Fame (left) and Valor (right). The western pier has George Washington as President, Accompanied by Wisdom and Justice (1917–18) by A. Stirling Calder (father of Alexander Calder) with flanking Justice (right) and Wisdom (left) figures.[1] In the latter sculpture, a hand holds a book bearing the Latin phrase Exitus Acta Probat (“the end justifies the deed”). These sculptures are commonly referred to as Washington at War and Washington at Peace, respectively.

History

In 1889, a large plaster and wood memorial arch was erected over Fifth Avenue just north of Washington Square Park by local businessman and philanthropist William Rhinelander Stewart (1852-1929). Stewart lived at 17 Washington Square North and he collected $2,765 from his friends to finance the work. The temporary arch was so popular that three years later the permanent stone arch, designed by architect Stanford White, was erected.[2]

During the excavations for the eastern pier, human remains, a coffin, and a gravestone dated 1803 were uncovered 10 feet (3.0 m) below ground level.[3] The Arch was dedicated in 1895. In 1918 two statues of Washington were added to the north side.

Formerly, the Washington Square Arch was extensively defaced with spray-painted graffiti. It was cleaned and restored in the 1980s.[citation needed]

My images

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CHABAD House Washington Square – NW corner

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Stop 123: Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

Center for Jewish History

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Center for jewish history)
The Center for Jewish History
Center for Jewish History NYC 14.JPG
Established 2000
Location 15 West 16th Street, Manhattan,New YorkUSA
Coordinates 40.738047°N 73.993821°WCoordinates40.738047°N 73.993821°W
Public transit access Subway14th Street – Union Square
Website The Center for Jewish History

ContentsThe Center for Jewish History is a partnership in New York City of five Jewish history, scholarship and art organizations:American Jewish Historical SocietyAmerican Sephardi FederationLeo Baeck Institute, New YorkYeshiva University Museum, and YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. It is also an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution.[1]

Collection

The Center is a 125,000 square feet (11,600 m2) facility created from four existing buildings and two new buildings. The partners’ collections include more than 100 million documents, 500,000 books and thousands of art objects,[2] most of which had been poorly housed in the member institutions and were at risk of damage or destruction.[3] The Center is heavily involved with the preservation of records that define moments in Jewish immigration to New York City.[4] A $670,000 grant awarded in 2007 helped with the cataloging of these materials.[5]

The partners’ collections include the original handwritten copy of Emma Lazarus‘ 1883 “Give me your tired, your poor” poem that was later inscribed on the base of the Statue of LibertySandy Koufax‘s Brooklyn Dodgers jersey;[6] a letter from Thomas Jeffersonto New York‘s oldest Jewish congregation; and the first Hebrew prayer books printed in America. The collections range from the early modern era in Europe and pre-colonial times in the Americas to present-day materials from across the globe. The Center provides access to a comprehensive collection of historic archival materials, including Franz KafkaTheodor HerzlMoses MendelssohnSigmund Freud and Albert Einstein[7]

History

The Center officially opened in Manhattan’s Union Square in 2000 after six years of construction and planning with a goal of creating synergy among the five member organizations, each offering a different approach to Jewish history, scholarship and art. This was one of the first attempts at uniting differing views on Jewish culture[8] and resulted in the largest repository documenting the Jewish experience outside of Israel[1] leading some to refer to it as the Jewish Library of Congress.[6]

When it opened its doors to the public in October 2000, the Center struggled with financial problems. In 2007, there were preliminary talks about a partnership with NYU‘s Skirball Department for Hebrew and Judaic Studies to the benefit of both organizations.[9] In the end, the Center and Skirball decided not to move forward. In 2010, the Center for Jewish History was able to raise $30 million to retire its construction debt.[10] The amount was raised and donated by the chairman and founder of the center, Bruce Slovin; co-chairmen William Ackman and Joseph Steinberg; the Fairholme Foundation; and 19 other donors.[11] In 2012, the Center received a top rating of four stars from the Charity Navigator non-profit evaluation service.[12]

My images

 Lecture at Center by Tomasz Jankowski
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